The objective of the paper is to review the present state of knowledge on health threats that occur as a result of some thermal processing of food products. Depending on the type and properties of raw materials and conditions of processes, carcinogenic, mutagen and genotoxic substances may be formed out of them, which may be treated as a process contamination. They are produced in processing plants, where their content is obligatorily controlled and organic, as well as in the conditions of food production in gastronomic units and households. The paper emphasises the second area of food processing, in particular, house-holds and popularised grilling processes, where there are no other possibilities of control of the threat level and awareness of people who prepare food and consumers is insufficient. The paper presents the most often occurring hazardous compounds, the most important regulations and admissible limits of consumption, as well as principles of thermal processing in a safe manner, and possibilities of limiting the levels of those substances in products
The research is focused on the study of the temperature dependence of the internal damping of selected magnesium alloys with different contents of aluminium - AZ31 and AZ61. These alloys are currently widely used in various types of industry, mainly in the automotive industry. It belongs to a group of materials called HIDAMETS because they have excellent damping properties. The internal damping of the samples was measured on a unique ultrasonic device constructed at Žilina University in Žilina. Specimens were measured at baseline in the temperature range from 25 °C to 400 °C. Changes in internal damping caused by varying aluminium contents in investigated alloys were noted. As the aluminium content increases, maximum internal damping is achieved due to the formation, growth and subsequent dissolution of the continuous precipitate in the microstructure.
The objective of the paper is to analyze the cooperation in craft beer manufacturing in Poland and to identify the specificity of this phenomenon from the perspective of enterprise management. The sales of craft beers in Poland are growing rapidly. Craft beers have about a 0.5% share in the total beer sales value in Poland. The popular practice in the industry is contract brewing. It is an interesting phenomenon in the field of cooperation of enterprises which can be classified and analyzed as a form of: economic cooperation (generally), production cooperation, outsourcing, network and virtual organization and also coopetition. It is a specific business model. Contract brewing is a complex problem the specificity of which emerges on several levels. Firstly, there is a special way to emerge in the market of craft beers, even while not possessing significant funds by the entrepreneur. Secondly, it is a form of cooperation in the field of production which unites efforts on the side of both the customer and the contractor since it is not limited to normal outsourcing of production to an external entity but involves physical production capacity of the contractor and technological know-how of both cooperation parties. Thirdly, it is firmly embedded in human relationships. Fourthly, it can generate coopetitive relations since the brewery accepting the order may conduct its own activity related to production and sales of beer under its own brand.
Oleksii Hunyak, Khrystyna Sobol, Taras Markiv and Volodymyr Bidos
Concrete block pavements have become an attractive engineering and economical alternative to both flexible and rigid pavements because of it’s high strength and durability. The influence of pozzolanic mineral additions – natural zeolite and expanded perlite powder on the properties of concrete interlocking blocks in different curing conditions has been studied. The use of zeolite as a substitute for cement in the production of concrete blocks increased the water demand but decreased the water absorption of the blocks. Obtained results show, that concrete blocks with 10% substitution of cement with zeolitic tuff is characterized by higher strength, lower mass loss and absence of efflorescence.
The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that in a dynamically changing business environment, an organization should focus on embracing imitation strategies such as a safer form of building up its market position. The author addresses issues of innovation and imitation, provides definitions and defines realistic conditions and advantages of imitation strategies. Innovation does not guarantee a company's market success. The research conducted has shown that imitation is not only a commonly used strategy of creating competitiveness, but it is also the foundation of many firms’ success stories. Innovative imitation, technological diffusion, creative imitation should be treated equally as innovation – as a another development strategy, different form of strategy implementation, assuming less risk and wider market access with less risk and cost.
Maksym Lobodanov, Pavlo Vegera and Zinoviy Blikharskyy
In current economic trends, changes in construction using are required. It usually leads to changes in value and type of the working load on building structures, with the requirement to rate the technical state and replace or strengthen the elements. An important aspect of determining the residual bearing capacity of damaged bending reinforced concrete elements is the research concerning the influence of difference defects and damages on the change of strength and deformability. In the article main types of damages and defects, methods of studies of damaged reinforced concrete elements and the expediency of usage of this elements are described. However, most methods are suitable only for certain defects and damages due to the large complexity of calculations and the consideration of multifactoriality. Significant complexity of a single method for calculating damaged elements depends on the possible changing stress strain state of an element in combination with certain defects and damages, the presence of a non-complete separation where during loading or alteration of the damaged element the fractions become included in the work, reinforced concrete is the composite material which carrying complexity in calculating the joint work of its components.
Peter Bajus, Miroslav Mraz, Ivan Rigo, Pavol Findura, Adam Fürstenzeller, Pawel Kielbasa and Urszula Malaga-Tobola
Evaluation of harvest and postharvest treatment quality of the grains is affected by usage of appropriate equipment and technology. The grain damage depends on its physical and mechanical features. The corn planting has significant representation in European conditions, mainly for food industry purposes. In the work, we were focused on observing of the drying temperature’s impact on the micro-damage of the seeds. The solution of the issue described in the work is closely related to the preparation and solution of the education project KEGA 039SPU-4/2017, and a scientific research project VEGA 1/0718/17 „Study about the effect of technological parameters of the surface coating in agricultural and forestry techniques for qualitative parameters, safety and environmental acceptability“.
The key to the functioning of enterprises in today's market is the concept of flexibility, which is mainly associated with adapting to very dynamically changing customer requirements. The basis for this approach is, among others, the realisation of serial production, products created for the customer's order in the quantity and time defined in orders. The LEAN Managemnt and LEAN production approach is a solution dedicated to meeting market assumptions. The LEAN concept, which both in the organization of production and management is focused on dynamic response to changes in the environment. The term LEAN represents numerous improvements to the organization, tools and techniques used to reduce and eliminate individual processes (or parts thereof) that are unnecessary activities. The key to analysing entire processes and defining unnecessary activities is thorough observation and selection of dedicated solutions. In the set of LEAN tools, you can find a lot of possibilities, from organization of a workstation itself, to a thorough quantitative analysis of times and process sequences, from simple facilities to complex technological solutions. The article presents the results of the assembly process analysis, indicates the point of product differentiation (marking for the client) and presents the map of organizational and preparatory activities for this process. The presented results are part of the activities within organization of the LEAN approach, currently having priority for the Research entity organisation improvement team.
Aleksandr Korotkov, Andrey Palichyn, Petr Savinykh, Wacław Romaniuk, Kinga Borek and Jan Barwicki
Paper presents research concerned utilization of natural gas in a liquid state as a new source of electrical energy generation in country side areas of Russia to use it in a small family farms and bigger agriculture enterprises. The experiment shows that alcohol and gasoline are more expensive products to be a source for electricity generation as a reserve energy supply in agriculture production areas of the country. Introduction of natural gas generator as an alternative fuel makes possible to produce low cost of electrical energy in any part of the country, what gives great potential to alternative energy supply, but especially for agriculture production on small households and also bigger enterprises
Ondrej Ponjičan, Aleksandar Sedlar, Pavol Findura, Agnieszka Szparaga and Sławomir Kocira
The paper presents kinetics of osmotic dehydration of plums in relation to the treatment time and concentration of sucrose solution. The main aim of the study was polyoptimisation of the preservation process, namely selection of optimal parameters of osmotic dehydration processes including changes in selected quality indicators. Defining of optimal conditions of the entire course of preservation may influence limitation of consumption of preserving substances (osmotic substances) and reduction of the energy demand. Based on the research which was carried out, it was found that parameters of osmotic dehydration had a significant impact on mass transfer coefficients and physico-chemical indicators of fruit - along with the increase of concentration of osmotic solution and extension of the time of the process, the increase of the investigated sizes was observed. In the second part of the paper, optimization of the fruit preservation process was performed. The idea of the objective function consisted in minimization of the difference between the expected values of criteria and the values obtained from the experimental results. For the defined scalar optimization criterion an explicit relation between quality and cost of the product was showed.