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Open access

Kyung Hee Kim

Abstract

Kim’s CATs framework (2016) identified creative climates (C), attitudes (A) and thinking (T) skills for innovation. Creativity can be measured by testing and non-testing methods. Testing methods include creativity tests for climate, attitude and thinking skills. Among the creativity tests available, two versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking - Figural and Verbal (TTCT-F and V) are most commonly used. I examined the relationships between the two versions as well as their reliability across gender. From preschool children to adults, 994 participants’ scores on the two versions were used. The results showed that scores on the two versions are significantly related, yet TTCT-F is a more comprehensive, reliable and valid measure of creativity than the TTCT-V.

Open access

Klára Pirklová

Abstract

The article deals with the topic of play as the background for creativity. Methodologically, the study is based on a phenomenological- hermeneutical approach. This means we do not base our questions on predefined terms, but rather aim to search for them. Thus, in pursuit of questioning the phenomenon of creativity, we explore other phenomena - play, education (paideia) and utility (pragma). To picture the relationships between these phenomena we borrow two symbolic figures - Socrates and Pippi Longstocking. Socrates appears here as the symbol of wondering and the antidote to all false sophistication (and thus true education), and Pippi as the exemplar par excellence of free, joyous and thoroughly inutile play. In the article we aim to expose the inutile and creative character of play as its greatest benefit. Our line of questioning follows the traditions of Czech philosophy of education, represented by Jan Patočka.

Open access

Sameh Said-Metwaly, Wim Van den Noortgate and Eva Kyndt

Abstract

The growing body of creativity research has raised several challenging issues with regard to the measurement of this construct. This paper aims to provide a review of current challenging methodological issues related to measuring creativity. Five methodological issues are discussed: selecting measurement instruments, sampling, testing conditions, psychometric properties and domain-generality/specificity of creativity. This paper reveals that there remain a number of unresolved issues and serious questions surrounding the measurement of creativity. Research gaps and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Open access

Sven Form

Abstract

Researchers that wish to evaluate the aesthetic success or functional creativity of books in the real world need a method to measure the outcome variable. However, sales figures are rarely published. Bestseller lists and expert judgments may not adequately reflect the aesthetic success among the general public. Data available on the platform Goodreads may serve as an alternative for measuring the popularity of books. In the present study, the ratings and number of ratings from Goodreads, as well as the number of literary prizes awarded are compared with the actual number of copies sold for a significant sample, the 98 most bestselling books in the UK from 1998 to 2012. Results indicated that literary prizes cannot serve as a gauge for the popularity of a book. While ratings were associated with copies sold, the number of ratings was a significantly better indicator of the sales figures of a book.

Open access

Jacek Gralewski, Aleksandra Gajda, Ewa Wiśniewska, Izabela Lebuda and Dorota M. Jankowska

Open access

Asdrúbal Borges Formiga Sobrinho and Vlad Petre Glăveanu

Abstract

How can hierarchy influence individual creativity in the work environment? In the contemporary literature about creativity in organizations sometimes factors like this are considered constraints. However, the question remains as to how the meaning of hierarchy can change or what causes changes in a given organizational culture. This paper aims to document these processes in a Brazilian public organization, by considering the creative actions of employees, in particular those meant to enhance communicability or the potential for making communication effective. To reach this goal, thematic content analysis was applied to individual interviews of two employees. Considering the contradictions and ambiguities in their discourses and actions, the results point to the fact that environmental factors like hierarchy can change their meaning according to employees’ actions and interactions with colleagues and managers. This makes the communication stimulating or constraining for creativity, at least as expressed in the generation of new meanings or novelties. Thus, the practical question to reflect upon becomes: how can individual actions change the meaning of hierarchy and make the work environment more favorable to creativity?

Open access

Željko Rački

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the education expert and non-expert consensually rated nature of creativity operationalized as observable behaviour. When operationalized as observable behaviour akin to concrete educational objectives accessible to being taught, is creativity a construct valid both internationally and over time, and what are its distinguishing features? A representative sample of concretely stated behaviours descriptive of creativity displayed by children and adolescents was evaluated with high convergent validity by educational psychologists, specialists in gifted education, university students of teacher studies, and mathematics teachers (N = 208) on the level of creativity, and ten additional behaviour features. The results of the canonical correlation analysis suggest internationally and temporally stable and an educationally viable bridge between general creativity construct operationalization and measurement on the one hand, and the domain-specificity of creative behaviours and their features on the other. By viewing the general creativity construct as a meta-theoretical heuristic, and focusing on one group of domain-specific consensually rated creative behaviours and their progressive nature as educational objectives, the findings of this study are discussed in the context of general and gifted education.

Open access

Ian Hocking and David Vernon

Abstract

Previous research has shown changing perspectives to be important in problem finding, with viewpoint-based techniques like the 'six thinking hats' and the 'six honest serving men' improving performance (e.g. Vernon & Hocking, 2014). To date, however, evidence for similar techniques based on conceptually 'near' and 'far' cues, where conceptual distance is defined topologically in a semantic space, has shown mixed results. In a sample of 171 participants, we used two standard verbal problem scenarios together with a novel technique comprising six concepts that were either conceptually near or far from the problem scenario. Participants in the experimental group used the concepts when generating solutions; controls were given empty placeholders instead of concepts. Performance was measured for fluency, quality, originality and flexibility. Apart from flexibility, participants did worse when using concepts of either type in comparison to controls. For flexibility, a borderline boost for far concepts was observed (η2 = .03, p = .06). We conclude that the cognitive load overhead introduced by our concept-cueing technique, or any other similar technique that attempts to shape the creative process, needs to be minimised through a variety of methods before we can better determine its usefulness and, thus, the role of conceptual distance in creative problem solving.

Open access

Aleksandra Gajda and Mayumi Oie

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze creativity profiles and understanding of creativity in Poland and Japan. The study included 597 participants (233 Polish and 364 Japanese). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out (mixed method). We identified the existence of five different creativity profiles and ten categories for defining creativity, with significant differences in frequency between the two countries. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of intercultural differences and the individualism / collectivism theory (Hofstede, 1983).

Open access

Sameh Said-Metwaly, Wim Van den Noortgate and Eva Kyndt

Abstract

This paper presents a review of the literature on the measurement of creativity. Creativity definitions are discussed as a starting point for understanding the nature of this construct. The four major approaches to measuring creativity (process, person, product and press) are reviewed, pointing out commonly used instruments as well as the advantages and weaknesses of each approach. This review reveals that the measurement of creativity is an unsettled issue, and that the existing instruments purporting to measure creativity suffer from serious conceptual and psychometric shortcomings. Research gaps and suggestions for future research are discussed.