The idea of strengthening the foundation using injection piles lies in transferring loads from the foundation to the piles anchorage in existing structure and formed in the soil. Such a system has to be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile onto the soil. Pile structure often reinforced with steel element has to also be able to transfer such a loading. According to the rules of continuum mechanics, the bearing capacity of such a system and a deformation of its individual elements can be determined by way of an analysis of the contact problem of three interfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different couples of materials. Those surfaces create: pile-foundation anchorage, bonding between reinforcement and material from which the pile is formed and pilesoil interface. What is essential is that on the contact surfaces the deformation of materials which adhere to each other can vary and depends on the mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. Engineering practice and experimental research point out that the failure in such structures occurs at interfaces. The paper is concentrating on presenting the experiments on interaction between cement grout and various types of steel reinforcement. The tests were conducted on the special low pressure injection piles widely used to strengthen foundations of already existing structures of historical buildings due to the technology of formation and injection pressure.
Geostatistical methods make the analysis of measurement data possible. This article presents the problems directed towards the use of geostatistics in spatial analysis of displacements based on geodetic monitoring. Using methods of applied (spatial) statistics, the research deals with interesting and current issues connected to space-time analysis, modeling displacements and deformations, as applied to any large-area objects on which geodetic monitoring is conducted (e.g., water dams, urban areas in the vicinity of deep excavations, areas at a macro-regional scale subject to anthropogenic influences caused by mining, etc.). These problems are very crucial, especially for safety assessment of important hydrotechnical constructions, as well as for modeling and estimating mining damage.
Based on the geodetic monitoring data, a substantial basic empirical material was created, comprising many years of research results concerning displacements of controlled points situated on the crown and foreland of an exemplary earth dam, and used to assess the behaviour and safety of the object during its whole operating period. A research method at a macro-regional scale was applied to investigate some phenomena connected with the operation of the analysed big hydrotechnical construction.
Applying a semivariogram function enabled the spatial variability analysis of displacements. Isotropic empirical semivariograms were calculated and then, theoretical parameters of analytical functions were determined, which approximated the courses of the mentioned empirical variability measure. Using ordinary (block) kriging at the grid nodes of an elementary spatial grid covering the analysed object, the values of the Z* estimated means of displacements were calculated together with the accompanying assessment of uncertainty estimation – a standard deviation of estimation σk. Raster maps of the distribution of estimated averages Z* and raster maps of deviations of estimation σk (in perspective) were obtained for selected years (1995 and 2007), taking the ground height 136 m a.s.l. into calculation. To calculate raster maps of Z* interpolated values, methods of quick interpolation were also used, such as the technique of the inverse distance squares, a linear model of kriging, a spline kriging, which made the recognition of the general background of displacements possible, without the accuracy assessment of Z* value estimation, i.e., the value of σk. These maps are also related to 1995 and 2007 and the elevation.
As a result of applying these techniques, clear boundaries of subsiding areas, upthrusting and also horizontal displacements on the examined hydrotechnical object were marked out, which can be interpreted as areas of local deformations of the object, important for the safety of the construction.
The effect of geostatistical research conducted, including the structural analysis, semivariograms modeling, estimating the displacements of the hydrotechnical object, are rich cartographic characteristic (semivariograms, raster maps, block diagrams), which present the spatial visualization of the conducted various analyses of the monitored displacements.
The prepared geostatistical model (3D) of displacement variability (analysed within the area of the dam, during its operating period and including its height) will be useful not only in the correct assessment of displacements and deformations, but it will also make it possible to forecast these phenomena, which is crucial when the operating safety of such constructions is taken into account.
The paper presents the dynamic response of annular three-layered plate subjected to loads variable in time. The plate is loaded in the plane of outer layers. The plate core has the electrorheological properties expressed by the Bingham body model. The dynamic stability loss of plate with elastic core is determined by the critical state parameters, particularly by the critical stresses. Numerous numerical observations show the influence of the values of viscosity constant and critical shear stresses, being the Bingham body parameters, on the supercritical viscous fluid plate behaviour. The problem has been solved analytically and numerically using the orthogonalization method and finite difference method. The solution includes both axisymmetric and asymmetric plate dynamic modes.
Leyla Bouaricha, Ahmed Djafar Henni and Laurent Lancelot
A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).
This article presents an efficient search method for representative circular and unconstrained slip surfaces with the use of the tailored genetic algorithm. Searches for unconstrained slip planes with rigid equilibrium methods are yet uncommon in engineering practice, and little publications regarding truly free slip planes exist. The proposed method presents an effective procedure being the result of the right combination of initial population type, selection, crossover and mutation method. The procedure needs little computational effort to find the optimum, unconstrained slip plane. The methodology described in this paper is implemented using Mathematica. The implementation, along with further explanations, is fully presented so the results can be reproduced. Sample slope stability calculations are performed for four cases, along with a detailed result interpretation. Two cases are compared with analyses described in earlier publications. The remaining two are practical cases of slope stability analyses of dikes in Netherlands. These four cases show the benefits of analyzing slope stability with a rigid equilibrium method combined with a genetic algorithm. The paper concludes by describing possibilities and limitations of using the genetic algorithm in the context of the slope stability problem.
The constant development of geotechnical technologies imposes the necessity of monitoring techniques to provide a proper quality and the safe execution of geotechnical works. Several monitoring methods enable the preliminary design of work process and current control of hydrotechnical works (pile driving, sheet piling, ground improvement methods). Wave parameter measurements and/or continuous histogram recording of shocks and vibrations and its dynamic impact on engineering structures in the close vicinity of the building site enable the modification of the technology parameters, such as vibrator frequency or hammer drop height. Many examples of practical applications have already been published and provide a basis for the formulation of guidelines, for work on the following sites. In the current work the author’s experience gained during sheet piling works for the reconstruction of City Channel in Wrocław (Poland) was presented. The examples chosen describe ways of proceedings in the case of new and old residential buildings where the concrete or masonry walls were exposed to vibrations and in the case of the hydrotechnical structures (sluices, bridges).
Remigiusz Duszyński, Angelika Duszyńska and Stefan Cantré
The supporting structure inside a coastal dike is often made of dredged non-uniform sand with good compaction properties. Due to the shortage of natural construction material for both coastal and river dikes and the surplus of different processed materials, new experiments were made with sand-ash mixtures and fine-grained dredged materials to replace both dike core and dike cover materials resulting in economical, environmentally friendly and sustainable dikes. Ash from EC Gdańsk and dredged sand from the Vistula river were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. The optimum sand-ash composites were applied at a field test site to build a large-scale research dike. Fine-grained dredged materials from Germany were chosen to be applied in a second full-scale research dike in Rostock. All materials were investigated according to the standards for soil mechanical analysis. This includes basic soil properties, mechanical characteristics, such as grain-size distribution, compaction parameters, compressibility, shear strength, and water permeability. In the field, the infiltration of water into the dike body as well as the erosion resistance of the cover material against overflowing water was determined. Results of both laboratory and field testing are discussed in this paper. In conclusion, the mixing of bottom ash with mineral soil, such as relatively uniform dredged sand, fairly improves the geotechnical parameters of the composite, compared to the constituents. Depending on the composite, the materials may be suitable to build a dike core or an erosion-resistant dike cover.
Andrzej Wałęga, Dariusz Młyński and Katarzyna Wachulec
The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of asymptotic functions for determining the value of CN parameter as a function of precipitation depth in mountain and upland catchments. The analyses were carried out in two catchments: the Rudawa, left tributary of the Vistula, and the Kamienica, right tributary of the Dunajec. The input material included data on precipitation and flows for a multi-year period 1980–2012, obtained from IMGW PIB in Warsaw. Two models were used to determine empirical values of CNobs parameter as a function of precipitation depth: standard Hawkins model and 2-CN model allowing for a heterogeneous nature of a catchment area.
The study analyses confirmed that asymptotic functions properly described P-CNobs relationship for the entire range of precipitation variability. In the case of high rainfalls, CNobs remained above or below the commonly accepted average antecedent moisture conditions AMCII. The study calculations indicated that the runoff amount calculated according to the original SCS-CN method might be underestimated, and this could adversely affect the values of design flows required for the design of hydraulic engineering projects. In catchments with heterogeneous land cover, the results of CNobs were more accurate when 2-CN model was used instead of the standard Hawkins model. 2-CN model is more precise in accounting for differences in runoff formation depending on retention capacity of the substrate. It was also demonstrated that the commonly accepted initial abstraction coefficient λ = 0.20 yielded too big initial loss of precipitation in the analyzed catchments and, therefore, the computed direct runoff was underestimated. The best results were obtained for λ = 0.05.
Marcin Ćwirko, Małgorzata Jastrzębska and Sławomir Kwiecień
The aim of this paper was to find an answer to the question about the possibility of using steel welded mesh in building the retaining walls of gabion baskets. In light of the currently used gabion structure solutions, among which double-woven mesh is much more popular, the focus was put on the possibility of using welded mesh. A numerical analysis was conducted to examine the behavior of welded and woven mesh subjected to various loads and the results obtained for both types of mesh were directly compared. The maximal displacement in mesh nodes was admitted as the measurement of the system behavior (in the case of both undamaged and damaged mesh).
Krzysztof Skrzypkowski, Waldemar Korzeniowski, Krzysztof Zagórski and Piotr Dudek
In the underground mines of the Legnica–Głogów Copper District (LGOM) the main way to protect the room excavation is the use of a rock bolt support. For many years, it has proven to be an efficient security measure in excavations which met all safety standards and requirements. The article presents the consumption of the rock bolt support in the Mining Department “Polkowice–Sieroszowice” in the years 2010–2015 as well as the number of bolt supports that were used to secure the excavations. In addition, it shows the percentage of bolt supports that were used to conduct rebuilding work and cover the surface of exposed roofs. One of the factors contributing to the loss of the functionality of bolt supports is corrosion whose occurrence may lead directly to a reduction in the diameter of rock bolt support parts, in particular rods, bearing plates and nuts. The phenomenon of the corrosion of the bolt support and its elements in underground mining is an extremely common phenomenon due to the favorable conditions for its development in mines, namely high temperature and humidity, as well as the presence of highly aggressive water. This involves primarily a decrease in the capacity of bolt support construction, which entails the need for its strengthening, and often the need to perform the reconstruction of the excavation.
The article presents an alternative for steel bearing plates, namely plates made using the spatial 3D printing technology. Prototype bearing plates were printed on a 3D printer Formiga P100 using the “Precymit” material. The used printing technology was SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), which is one of the most widely used technologies among all the methods of 3D printing for the short series production of the technical parts of the final product.
The article presents the stress–strain characteristic of the long expansion connected rock bolt support OB25 with a length of 3.65 m. A rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is an additional bolt support in excavations, and it is increasingly frequently used to reinforce roofs and in rebuilding the underground mines of KGHM Polish Copper S.A. In order to conduct the laboratory tests that are most suitable for the mine conditions, and yet are carried out on a laboratory test facility, the Authors used a steel cylinder with an external diameter of 102 mm and a length of 600 mm, which was filled with a core of rock (dolomite) from the roofs of the mine workings.
In addition the maximum load that took over the bolt support made of rods and connected with sleeves was determined. For the initial tension, the elastic and plastic range of the maximal displacements, which were measured by the rope encoder, were determined. The statical tests of the expansion rock bolt support were carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Underground Mining in simulated mine conditions. The test facility enables the study of the long bolt rods on a geometric scale of 1:1 for the different ways of fixing. The aim of the laboratory research was to obtain the stress–strain characteristics, of the long expansion rock bolt support with a steel bearing plate and a plate printed on a 3D printer.