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Open access

Kocsis Loránd and Szabó Mónika

Abstract

The internet is the most popular information source in our digital world. Studies confirm that numerous people are using the internet to look up health-related information. There is no information about this trend among the Transylvanian Hungarian population. Our purpose was to assess the role of the internet in answering health-related problems for young Hungarian Transylvanian people, and its impact.

The participants (N=351) completed an online questionnaire with 28 items, which was available on Facebook, on the first page indicating their consent to a voluntary and anonymous survey. Our target was the generation below the age of 45. Descriptive, then comparative analysis was performed, based on gender and region of origin.

95.3% of the participants used the internet for finding health-related information, diagnosis, treatment or diet, without significant difference between subgroups, 70% at least once a month. Only 3.3% were instructed by their physician about the websites that provide health information, while 90% would require it. At least 64% of the respondents makes self-diagnosis at least sometimes, women more often, and nearly 25% frequently or always check the doctor’s opinion and/or the recommended treatment online. 40% of cases consider that their self-diagnosis was often the same as the physician’s final diagnosis, but only 33,2% agreed totally with their doctor. 47,4% of them were scared and/or became worried because of the information from the internet, especially women.

Based on the above, it is clear that online health information overtakes the traditional doctor-centered health information and makes it necessary for us to change our perspective of digital healthcare.

Open access

Túrós János Levente, Kiss Szilárd-Leó, Bereczky Lujza-Katalin, Bartha Edina, Lészai Lehel, Szabó Tamás, Györfi Imola and Szabó Béla

Abstract

Thrombophilia refers to a coagulation disorder that predisposes to thrombosis and thus increases the risk of thrombotic events. Both inherited and acquired thrombophilia are associated with vascular thrombosis and pregnancy-related complications, including infertility, recurrent miscarriage, and premature birth.

Recently, thrombophilia has been increasingly encountered as an infertility factor, which gives the clinical relevance of the disease.

The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic role of thrombophilia in the treatment of infertility and the pregnancy of thrombophilic women during assisted reproduction procedures.

Frequency of abortions increases and effectiveness of in vitro fertilization (IVF) decreases with age. Normal weight has a positive effect on assisted reproduction techniques (ART’s) outcome. Repeat IVF failure is more common in thrombophilia than in healthy women, and the “take home baby” ratio for IVF is 24%. Spontaneous abortion was most commonly observed in the PAI homozygous group followed by MTHFR homozygous mutation, MTHFR heterozygous mutation, and Factor V (Leiden) mutation. The most effective treatment was concomitant therapy with low molecular weight heparin and aspirin.

Open access

E. Essling and A. Khalaf

Abstract

Background: Homeopathy is being increasingly practiced within different medical areas of use. Homeopathic medicines are sold in German pharmacies, whereas the assortment of Swedish pharmacies does not include homeopathic medicines. Despite differences between Sweden and Germany, homeopathic medicines are classified as drugs in both countries. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacy employees’ self-rated knowledge, use and attitudes toward homeopathy in Sweden and Germany. Methods: A quantitative web-survey was sent to 30 pharmacies in Sweden and 30 pharmacies in Germany, which were selected by using a multi-stage clustering sampling. The questionnaire contained closed-ended rating scales. To compare the self-rated knowledge, use and attitudes toward homeopathy of Swedish and German pharmacy employees, chi-square tests and Mann- Whitney tests were performed in SPSS. Results: A total of 209 pharmacy employees answered the survey (108 in Sweden and 101 in Germany). German participants estimated their knowledge higher than the Swedish participants (p < 0.01). In both countries, most participants thought that pharmacy employees should have knowledge about homeopathy. Although most Swedish participants stated that they receive questions about homeopathy, the German pharmacy employees receive questions about homeopathy more frequently (p < 0.01). Swedish participants reported less experience of own use of homeopathic medicines and less belief in their effectiveness as compared to the German participants (p < 0.01). However, in both countries, most participants stated that homeopathic medicines should be sold in pharmacies. Conclusion: As pharmacy employees should act professionally to advice customers on all drugs, increased homeopathic knowledge in pharmacy employees could potentially improve pharmaceutical practice

Open access

Bereczki Dániel, Balla Árpád, Pelok Benedek and Szatmári Szabolcs

Abstract

Pax Corporis is the first book written in Hungarian that presents in detail human diseases, their etiology and treatment. Ferenc Pápai Páriz had completed the manuscript entitled Pax Corporis in 1687, and it was published 3 years later in 1690 in Kolozsvár. Ferenc Pápai Páriz summarized the knowledge he gained during his studies and accumulated during his personal practice. He did not write this book for the professionals but for those poor people who had no access to physician’s care. This was the reason why Pax Corporis was written in Hungarian. Whereas Pápai’s Latin language scripts – for example his doctoral thesis written in Basel – are known to the international scientific community, the Hungarian language Pax Corporis remained unknown for all who were not familiar with the language. For this reason it also remained neglected that in Pax Corporis Ferenc Pápai Páriz had given a detailed description of all four currently acknowledged cardinal signs of Parkinson’s disease – tremor, rigor, bradykinesia and postural instability – and also of other characteristics of the disease 130 years before James Parkinson. The report on the description of the syndrome of Parkinson’s disease in Pax Corporis was presented to the international professional community in 2009. In the current study we evaluated the international recognition of Ferenc Pápai Páriz as one of the first descriptors of all 4 cardinal signs of Parkinson’s disease. We searched scientific citation databases – Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar – and also performed general searches on the web. We found that until April 2018 Pápai Páriz has been cited among those who first described the complete motor syndrome of Parkinson’ disease in Pax Corporis, in many countries of the world from New Zealand to Canada, and also in 16 European countries. Citations appeared in dissertations, scientific publications, textbooks, handbooks, professional websites and other documents. Three centuries after his original Hungarian script, Ferenc Pápai Páriz got his international recognition in medical history as one of the first descriptors of the syndrome of Parkinson’s disease.

Open access

Gyéresi Árpád, Kata Mihály and Gyéresi Mária

Abstract

Pharmacist Winkler Lajos, PhD (1863-1939, born in Arad), professor at the University of Sciences from Budapest and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, is considered the founder of modern analytical chemistry and drug analysis in Hungary.

He has developed and perfected a series of methods of volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Its original method, developed in 1888 for the determination of dissolved oxygen in water, is still used today.

Winkler Lajos also played an important role in the development of pharmaceutical education in Hungary

Open access

Kun Imre Zoltán, Kun Ildikó and Kolcsár Melinda

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disease among women with childbearing potential, the best-known cause of hirsutism, with a hypothesized prevalence of 8-22%. The first part of the paper discusses the conceptional evolution of the syndrome, from its description in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal till today. It describes the changes in the criteria systems, emphasizing that the Rotterdam criteria, proposed in 2003 by the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine, are still valid today. This system basically differs from earlier (1990) NIH-criteria in one aspect: it introduced two newer phenotypes, one without hyperandrogenism and the other with ovulatory cycles, so it distinguishes 4 phenotypes. The etiology and pathogenesis of PCOS is heterogeneous, multifactorial, poorly understood. We present the 3 leading hypotheses (1 - hypothalamo-hypophyseal disturbances, 2 – primary enzyme disorders in ovarian, or ovarian/adrenal steroidogenesis, resulting primarily in hyperactivity of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 3 – insulin resistance-hyperinsulinism and other metabolic dysfunctions). We emphasize the role of genetically determined hyperandrogenism, that of insulin resistance-hyperinsulinism and the importance of reinforcing each other. Subsequently, the aggravating aspects of the frequently associated metabolic syndrome are discussed, and then the effects of the mentioned pathological processes on the endocrine and other organ structures participating in the regulation of sexual functions. We stress the hypothetical role of perinatal and pubertal androgen exposition in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanisms of anovulation and those of the endometrial lesions are discussed, too. The clinical manifestations, the paraclinical and laboratory examinations, the positive and differential diagnosis and the complications are also presented. We intend to deal with the therapeutic aspects of PCOS in an upcoming paper.

Open access

Péter H. Mária

Abstract

On 31st of December 1895 Gyula Wlassics (1852-1937), minister of religion and education, published his Decree No 72 039, which allowed women to study medical science, pharmacy and humanities at universities. In Kolozsvár Gizella Kárpáti was the first woman who registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Ferenc József University.

Gizella Kárpáti was born in Kolozsvár on 3rd August 1884. After finishing secondary school in June 1902, in the autumn of the same year she registered at the Faculty of Medicine. The marks she got at the university examinations in the following 10 semesters proved that she could cope with her task. In the years spent at the university she met medical student József Szabó (born in 1882) whom she married later. They both started their medical career at Károly Lechner’s Neuro-Psychiatry Institute. From 1909 Gizella Kárpáti was a payed assistant, from 1911 she became assistant lecturer. Her husband became an assistant lecturer from the year 1908, then he was appointed lecturer and then honorary lecturer. Meanwhile he had to go to the front where he was followed by his wife. In 1919, after the professors of the university refused the act of swearing the oath of allegiance, they both made their escape from Kolozsvár together with the greater part of their fellow professors. After a short time they settled in Szeged, where József Szabó was appointed university professor. Here he published his book „Elmekórtan” in 1925. In the 1927-28 academic year he became dean, then vice-dean of the Faculty of Medicine, but in the year 1929 he died unexpectedly. In Szeged, Gizella Kárpáti being engaged in bringing up her two children, did not work as a physician. One of her children, Miklós, continued his parents’ profession, and became a physician. Gizella and her children returned to Kolozsvár for a short time, between 1940-1944, then they moved to Budapest and finally they settled in Szeged again. In 1929 József Szabó and in 1953 Gizella Kárpáti were entombed in one of the graves of honour of the Szeged central cemetery.

Open access

Sóki József and és Székely Edit

Abstract

The Bacteroides and Parabacteroides species are important obligate anaerobic bacteria that are significant constituents of normal flora (microbiota), and opportunistic pathogens with special biological background. They are highly resistant to antibiotics and monitoring their resistance levels is important for their empiric therapy. Several antibiotic resistance studies were conducted in the USA and Europe and we have data for the region involved in this study showing comparable trends. Multidrug-resistant strains are emerging among Bacteroides too, where the proper antibiotic tests and treatments may be life-saving.

Open access

Horváth Adrienne and Papp Zsuzsanna Erzsébet

Abstract

A broad spectrum of chemotherapy is being used in the therapy of childhood cancers, which may induce liver injury, impairing quality of life and efficacy of the treatment. History of, especially viral, liver diseases may increase toxicity. The aim of the paper is to assess the incidence, type and grade, predisposing factors and treatment options of drug-induced liver injury in children with malignant diseases under cytostatic therapy at the Hemato-Oncology Department of the Pediatric Clinic 2 from Targu-Mures, over a time period spanning from 2012 to 2017. The results of the study may serve as a foundation for such treatment strategies which would enable optimal outcomes with fewer cases of liver toxicity.

During this period, we treated 26 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), two patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), one patient with lymphoma and seven with solid tumors. We found liver toxicity in 77% of the patients treated for ALL, mainly during the maintenance therapy (65%) with oral 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate. The most common clinical signs were anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and faltering weight gain. Cholestasis developed in two patients, while hepatocytolysis was the most common observed event (n = 24). Liver fibrosis, hypersplenism, portal hypertension and esophageal varices were found in two patients. One patient required endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices. Elevation of serum bilirubin appeared in two patients, while hypoproteinemia was observed in nine patients. None of the patients developed acute liver failure. We treated liver toxicity with hydration, alkalinization, i.v. Aspatofort, Aminosteril-N Hepa 8%, oral acetylcysteine, silymarin, ursodeoxycholic acid, Liv-52, Sargenor, and Essentiale forte.

We found hepatotoxicity in 77% of the ALL patients undergoing chemotherapy, similar results have been published by other authors.

Hepatotoxicity may develop through direct hepatic effects of cytostatics, or a preexisting liver disease impairs the metabolism and excretion of the drug, increasing its toxic effects. In our patients hepatotoxicity can be explained mainly by direct liver-injury, previous infections with hepatotropic viruses, such as cytomegalovirus, were detected only in three patients.

Liver injury appeared in 77% of our ALL patients; 65% occurred during maintenance therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate. Close followup of liver function during chemotherapy is mandatory for optimal results.

Open access

Deák Dalma and Kovács Judit

Abstract

Burnout syndrome has an increasing incidence among intensive therapists because of high expectations and stress which leads to physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. Our aim was to examine the causes and severity of burnout in intensive care units.

Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires were distributed among intensive care workers of an university and a town hospital. Socio-demographic data were also collected.

The questionnaires were completed by 67 professionals, 28 doctors, 39 nurses. 43.4% suffered serious burnout, 23.52% high level of depersonalization, only 19.11% were satisfied with their accomplishments. Females showed higher incidence of burnout, especially those with chronic diseases (OR=3.33). According to our data, burnout was not related to family status and working hours, however there was significant correlation between satisfaction and weekly relaxation time (p = 0.0115).

Burnout syndrome is spreading among intensive care employees, therefore its prevention should be a priority.