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Akanbi Olanrewaju Akinfemiwa

Abstract

Studies of structural and hydrogeomorphological units (HGU) that are indicators of groundwater occurrence were carried out across an area extent of more than 700 km2 within the hard rock terrain of southwestern Nigeria. These studies integrated geological remote sensing techniques (RST) and geographical information system (GIS) methods to generate thematic maps that included elevation, drainage, lineaments and vegetation index for characterising the attributes of groundwater occurrence across the area. The results revealed that the lineament system is mainly rectilinear with major trends of NNW-SSE and NE-SW on the gneiss, NW-SE and NE-SW on porphyritic granite and NNE-SSW, NW-SE and E-W on migmatite. The discharge zones in the area are the lowland terrains underlain by gneiss and amphibolite. Similarly, variably directional discontinuities that are related to rock contacts are equally laden with groundwater. Conversely, the recharge areas are the high-lying terrains characterised by higher fracture density and underlain by porphyritic granite and migmatite. Additionally, there are evidences of groundwater seepage along the major river channels. Therefore, besides the rock structures, landform is another crucial factor that guides groundwater distribution in the study area.

Open access

Ali A. Aljubouri, Abdulqader D. Faisal and Wafaa K. Khalef

Abstract

Single phase, adherent films of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) were successfully grown on a glass substrate. Titanium nanofilm was pre-coated on the glass substrate to assist the growth of a layer adherent to the substrate. The copper film of 1.5 μm thickness was deposited via physical vapor deposition technique followed by thermal oxidation in air at various temperatures for 4 h. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to find the crystal structure, morphology, phases, and optical properties of the deposited films. The CuO NWs film with 60% transmittance at wavelengths greater than 800 nm was obtained. It can be used as an infrared thermal imaging filter and in optoelectronic devices. The fabricated temperature sensor exhibited high sensitivity in the temperature range of 20 °C to 180 °C.

Open access

Dawei Gao, Chunxia Wang, Yu Jian, Weiwei Li and Pengyu Dong

Abstract

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on a surface of Ti substrate. Fabrication of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (N-TiO2 NTs) was carried out by immersion in ammonia solution. CdS nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (CdS/N-TiO2 NTs) were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results indicate that the TiO2 nanotube diameter and wall thickness are 100 nm to 120 nm and 20 nm to 30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs are not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, CdS nanoparticles are evenly distributed on the surface of TiO2 NTs. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of CdS/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of MO under visible-light irradiation. Compared with TiO2 NTs, N-TiO2 NTs, CdS/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, and the highest degradation rate of CdS/N-TiO2NTs could reach 97.6 % after 90 min of irradiation.

Open access

Ramasamy Gopalsamy Sethuraman, Thangamuthu Venkatachalam and Selvaraj Dinesh Kirupha

Abstract

High aspect ratio, Zn doped copper oxide (Zn-CuO) nanofibers have been fabricated employing a newly designed electrospun coating unit using copper acetate, sodium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol in aqueous state. The prepared Zn doped copper oxide (Zn-CuO) nanofibers were sintered at 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C separately and characterized using X-ray diffraction XRD, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS. The average crystallite size was in the range of 28 nm to 30 nm. Optical properties of Zn-CuO nanofibers were analyzed using UV-DRS studies which showed a blue shift in the absorption band. An increase in band gap with the increase in postannealing temperature was observed due to the blue shift in absorption edge of CuO causing enhanced photodegradation. The catalytic properties of the CuO nanofibers were tested using methylene blue in aqueous medium. The influences of parameters responsible for high photodegradation were optimized and the rate of the photodegradation process was calculated using photodegradation kinetics. The reusability test was conducted to find the stability of the fabricated Zn-CuO nanofibers.

Open access

Nashiruddin Ahammed, Md Samim Hassan and Mehedi Hassan

Abstract

In this research article, pure and 1 %, 3 % and 5 % aluminium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via sol-gel method and then calcined at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the structural, optical and thermal properties of synthesized pure and Al doped ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed high purity of nanoparticles in the synthesized products without any impurity peaks. Mean dimension of the nanoparticles was ~28 nm and they were hexagonal in shape, according to the images analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical absorption spectra of pure and Al doped ZnO samples studied using UV-Vis spectrometry have been presented and we have observed that the band gap increases with increasing Al concentration. In FT-IR spectra, the broad absorption peaks around 485 cm−1 and 670 cm−1 were assigned to Zn–O vibration. Above 450 °C, the TG curve became flat what means there was no weight loss. In the DSC curve it is seen that the transition at 150 °C was highly exothermic because of structural relaxation and on doping the exothermic peaks became shifted to the lower value of temperature. These types of materials are very useful in optoelectronics applications.

Open access

Kanupriya Sharma, Praveen Kumar and Gaurav Verma

Abstract

This work presents a systematic study of the effect of ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) concentration on the optical and luminescent properties of poly N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) polymer nanocomposites. The ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized by a simple coprecipitation chemical route, while PVK:ZnSe nanocomposite films were fabricated using the spin coating technique. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis and fluorescence techniques. The X-ray diffraction and TEM studies confirmed the particle size, microstructure and spherical shape of the synthesized nanocrystals. The ZnSe nanocrystals in PVK caused a decrease in optical gap with increasing concentration of nanocrystals. The emission spectra exhibited augmentation in intensity up to 70 wt.% of nanoparticles while further addition resulted in a decrease in luminescence. The structure-property relationships obtained for the present system are important for developing low cost illumination devices.

Open access

Esra Öztürk and Erkul Karacaoglu

Abstract

In this study, silicate systems, M2SiO4 (M = Ca, Zn) were produced by solid state reaction and doped with 1 mol% Eu3+ rare-earth ion. Their heat treatments, which were conducted at 1200 °C and above for minimum 3 hours under an open atmosphere, were applied according to the DTA/TG results. Powder X-ray diffraction XRD analyses were performed to determine the phase properties of the phosphor systems after the sintering process. It was proved that the structures of two of the phosphor systems were well formed in except that the Zn2SiO4 had some ZnO secondary phases. The expected photoluminescence (PL) results were presented and the transitions of the Eu3+ ions were observed for both phosphors.

Open access

Zorana Lanc, Milan Zeljković, Aleksandar Živković, Branko Štrbac and Miodrag Hadžistević

Abstract

This paper presents the experimental determination of the dependence of emissivity of brass on surface roughness and temperature. The investigation was conducted using the infrared thermographic technique on brass alloy C27200 workpieces with different degrees of surface roughness, during the continuous cooling process. The results obtained showed that the emissivity of the chosen brass alloy increases with greater surface roughness and decreases during the cooling process, its value ranging from 0.07 to 0.19. It was concluded that surface roughness has a greater influence on the increase of the emissivity at higher temperatures, which can be seen in the three-dimensional infrared images. Multiple regression analysis confirmed a strong correlation between the examined parameters and the emissivity, and an original multiple regression model was determined.

Open access

Matej Nagy

Abstract

The complicated rock structures and the stability of surrounding rocks of the underground powerhouse are key ground mechanical challenges for hydropower projects. In this paper, an example of contributing self-support capacity of rock mass to evaluate optimised support for long-term usage of structure is given. It describes importance of investigations in the initial in situ stress distribution, rock mechanical and geological properties, engineering rock mass classifications by different methods, numerical modelling, comparison of tools for stability and support analysis and proper stability control for rock excavation and support. The results show that after underground excavations in hard rock, detailed analysis of measures to investigate deformation and self-supporting capacity creation is useful and a cost-saving procedure.

Open access

S. Anbu Chudar Azhagan, V.S. Kathiravan and N. Sathiya Priya

Abstract

The influence of magnesium sulfate as an additive in the nucleation of α and γ-polymorphs of glycine crystallized from aqueous solutions has been explored for the first time. Based on crystallization experiments, it was concluded that lower concentration of magnesium sulfate, say less than 2 g/mL, favors α-nucleation sites, whereas the optimized concentration of magnesium sulfate impurity to yield -nucleation sites is 2 g/mL and above. The nucleation time span (in days), solubility and pH were measured for α- and γ-nucleation sites in the aqueous solutions doped with magnesium sulfate. The glycine polymorphs α- and γ-single crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at ambient temperature. Crystal habit of glycine polymorphs was investigated and analyzed using goniometry. The unit cell dimensions and space group of the as-grown crystal were identified by single crystal XRD analysis. Both α- and γ-polymorphs of glycine were characterized structurally by powder XRD studies. The percentage of magnesium present in the grown glycine crystals was estimated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry elemental analysis (ICP-OES). The nonlinear optical properties of the γ-glycine crystals were examined by Q-switched high energy Nd:YAG laser. The second harmonic generation output efficiency of the as-grown gamma glycine single crystals was computed to be 1.31 times superior than that of the reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).