A. Ziewiec, A. Zielińska-Lipiec, J. Kowalska and K. Ziewiec
The paper presents the results of the investigation of microstructure of the welded X5CrNiCuNb16-4 (17-4PH) steel after solution treatment and aging at 620°C for different periods. The microstructure and the phase composition of the steel was investigated using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness was measured for samples aged at different times. Density distributions of Cu precipitates were established. The investigation has shown that the microstructure of the X5CrNiCuNb16-4 steel welds after aging at 620 ° C consists of tempered martensite, fine Cu precipitates and austenite. It was observed that the size of the Cu precipitates increases with increasing the aging time, what affects the decrease of hardness. Simultaneously, the quantity of reversed austenite increases with increase of aging time. It was revealed that enrichment of the austenite in Ni, Cu and C affects the increase of Ms, but this factor does not determine the stability of austenite.
Copper tin sulfide (Cu2SnS3) is a unique semiconductor, whose nanocrystals have attracted researchers’ attention for its tunable energy bandgap and wavelength in visible and near infrared range. Quantum dots which are fabricated from this material are highly suitable for optoelectronics and solar cell applications. This paper discusses the tunable energy bandgap, exciton Bohr radius and wavelength range of wurtzite structure of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots to assess the opportunity to use them in optoelectronics applications. The considerations show that the mole fraction of copper increases as energy bandgap decreases and tunable energy bandgap of this quantum dot material is inversely proportional to the wavelength.
An aqueous colloidal solution was prepared at 80 °C and pH = 9 from suitable chemical compounds to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals and thin films. The ZnO crystals were grown in the colloidal solution under special conditions. Their micrographs showed ZnO rods with hexagonal structure. The number of the rods, increased over time. The ZnO thin films were produced on glass substrates in the same colloidal solution using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in different deposition times. The produced films were post-annealed for about one hour at 400 °C. Crystalline structure, phase transitions and nanostructure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZnO wurtzite structure was dominant, and by increasing the deposition time, the films became more crystalline. Nanostructure of the films changed from rod to wire and transformed into pyramid-like structures. Also, morphology of the films changed and re-nucleation ocurred. Optical reflectance was measured in the wavelength of 300 nm to 800 nm with a spectrophotometer. Other optical properties and optical band gaps were calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation on reflectivity curves. Second harmonic generation was calculated by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refraction and real part of susceptibilities were obtained. Both positive and negative nonlinear refractions appeared in the ZnO films. It is important for the use in optoelectronic devices. Electronic properties were assessed by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential calculation. The band gap structure and density of states were calculated.
Jian Chen, Xiongfei Li, Wei Li, Cong Li, Baoshan Xie, Shuowei Dai, Jian-Jun He and Yanjie Ren
Quasi-static uniaxial compressive tests of open-cell copper (Cu) foams (OCCF) were carried out on an in-situ bi-direction tension/compress testing machine (IBTC 2000). The effects of strain rate, porosity and pore size on the energy absorption of open-cell copper foams were investigated to reveal the energy absorption mechanism. The results show that three performance parameters of open-cell copper foams (OCCF), involving compressive strength, Young modulus and yield stress, increase simultaneously with an increase of strain rate and reduce with increasing porosity and pore size. Furthermore, the energy absorption capacity of OCCF increases with an increase of porosity and pore size. However, energy absorption efficiency increases with increasing porosity and decreasing pore size. The finite element simulation results show that the two-dimensional stochastic model can predict the energy absorption performance of the foam during the compressive process. The large permanent plastic deformation at the weak edge hole is the main factor that affects the energy absorption.
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 →6H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.
In this study, novel polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene (PAN/PS) blend has been prepared and reinforced with carbon nanoparticle to form polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene/carbon nanoparticle (PAN/PS/CNP) nanocomposite foam. Acid-functional carbon nanoparticle (0.1-3 wt.%) was used as nano-reinforcement for PAN/PS blend matrix. 2’-azobisisobutyronitrile was employed as foaming agent. The PAN/PS/CNP nanocomposite foams have been tested for structure, morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability, non-flammability, water uptake, and toxic ion removal. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy exposed unique nanocellular morphology owing to physical interaction between the matrix and functional CNP. PAN/PS/CNP 0.1 Foam with 0.1 wt.% nanofiller had compression strength, modulus, and foam density of 41.8 MPa, 22.3 GPa, and 0.9 mgcm−3, respectively. Nanofiller loading of 3wt.% (PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam) considerably enhanced the compression strength, modulus, and foam density as 68.2 MPa, 37.7 GPa, and 1.9 mgcm−3, respectively. CNP reinforcement also enhanced the initial weight loss and maximum decomposition temperature of PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam to 541 and 574 ºC, relative to neat foam (T0 = 411 ºC; T10 = 459 ºC). Nanocomposite foams have also shown excellent flame retardancy as V-0 rating and high char yield of up to 57% were attained. Due to hydrophilic nature of functional carbon nanoparticle, water absorption capacity of 3 wt.% nanocomposite foam was 30% higher than that of pristine foam. Moreover, novel foams were also tested for the removal of toxic Pb2+ ions. PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam has shown much higher ion removal capacity (166 mg/g) and efficiency (99 %) than that of PAN/PS foam having removal capacity and efficiency of 90 mg/g and 45 %, respectively.
W. Christopher Immanuel, S. Paul Mary Deborrah, S.S.R. Inbanathan and D. Nithyaa Sree
Polycrystalline chalcogenide semiconductors play a vital role in solar cell applications due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Among the chalcogenide semi-conductors, CdZnS is one kind of such important material for applications in various modern solid state devices such as solar cells, light emitting diode, detector etc. Due to their applications in numerous electro-optic devices, group II-VI semiconductors have been studied extensively. In recent years, major attention has been given to the study of electrical and optical properties of CdZnS thin films. In this work, Cd1−xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique. Phase purity and surface morphology properties were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Chemical composition was studied using energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Optical band gap property was investigated using UV-Spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity studies were performed by two probe method and thermoelectric power setup (TEP) to determine the type of the material. This work reports the effect of Zn on structural, electrical, microstructural and optical properties of these films.
B. Yilmaz, E. T. Irmak, Y. Turhan, S. Doğan, M. Doğan and O. Turhan
The aims of the present study were to synthesize the intercalated kaolinite samples with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), glutamic acid (GA), succinimide (SIM), cetylpyridiniumchloride (CPC), and hexadecyltrimethylammoniumchloride (HDTMA+); to characterize by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), and to determine the hemocompatibility and the cytotoxic effects of the intercalated kaolinite nanoclays on human lymphocytes. It was found that the intercalation with DMSO did not cause any decrease in cell viability until its maximum concentration (500 µg/mL), however, the intercalation with SIM, CPC, and (HDTMA+) causd important decreases in lymphocyte viabilities. It was determined that no significant decrease was observed in protein content of the lymphocyte cells exposed to the kaolinite nanoclays except the ones intercalated with SIM. Furthermore, the pristine kaolinite nanoclays which were intercalated with DMSO, GA, and SIM exhibited high hemocompatibility and the nanoclays intercalated with CPC and (HDTMA+) were highly hemocompatibile for the amounts below 125 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. All the results of this work can serve for the human risk assesment of intercalated nanoclays.
The paper consist of characterization of the essence of structure, properties and application of AlSi-SiC composite foams as well as limitations and possibilities of their joining. Porous structure with porosity up to 80% and exceptional properties of aluminium foams are the reason of their numerous application and interest of their joining. Consideration of methods of welding, soldering and gluing AlSi9-SiC10 composite foams, the joint structure, and properties. Recommendations for surface preparation of foam, and different joining procedures aimed at control the porosity of the foam and glued surface roughness were established. Result of EDS and XRD investigations of the AlSi9-SiC10 composite foams joint were considered.