Optical properties of Si single crystals with different orientations (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in a spectral range of 200 nm to 2500 nm. The data of optical absorption revealed an indirect allowed transition with energy gap of 1.1 ± 0.025 eV. An anomalous dispersion in refractive index. The normal dispersion of the refractive index was discussed according to Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The oscillator energy Eo, dispersion energy Ed, high frequency dielectric constant ∈∞, lattice dielectric constant ∈L and electronic polarizability αe were estimated. The real ∈1 and imaginary ∈2 parts of dielectric constant were also determined.
A.K. Sharma, S.S. Potdar, M.A. Yewale, Deepak B. Shirgaonkar, K.S. Pakhare, B.M. Sargar, M.V. Rokade and U.M. Patil
Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method from aqueous cadmium nitrate solution. The bath temperatures were maintained at room temperature (25 °C) and at higher temperature (80 °C). The structural studies revealed that the films showed mixed phases of CdO and Cd(OH)2 with hexagonal/monoclinic crystal structure. Annealing treatment removed the hydroxide phase and the films converted into pure CdO with cubic, face centered crystal structure. SEM micrographs of as-deposited films revealed nanowire-like morphology for room temperature deposited films while nanorod-like morphology for high temperature deposited films. However, cube-like morphology was observed after air annealing. Elemental composition was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Band gap energies of the as-deposited films varied over the range of 3 eV to 3.5 eV, whereas the annealed films showed band gap energy variation in the range of 2.2 eV to 2.4 eV. The annealed films were successfully investigated for NH3 sensing at different operating temperatures and at different gas concentrations. The room temperature synthesized film showed a response of 17.3 %, whereas high temperature synthesized film showed a response of 13.5 % at 623 K upon exposure to 24 ppm of NH3.
The laser alloying is a continually developing surface treatment because of its significant and specific structuration of a surface. In particular, it is applied for Ti alloys, being now the most essential biomaterials’ group for load-bearing implants. The present research was performed on the Ti13Nb13Zr alloy subject to laser modification in order to determine the treatment effects on surface topography and its some mechanical properties like nanohardness, Young’s modulus, roughness. A pulse laser Nd:YAG was applied at three different laser pulse regimes: either 700 W, 1000 W or 1000 W treatment followed by 700 W modification at a pulse duration of 1 ms. The surface topography and morphology were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with spectroscope of X-ray energy dispersion. The mechanical properties were determined by nanoindentation tests and surface roughness with a use of profilograph. The wettability was tested with a goniometer. The obtained results demonstrate complex behavior of the material surface: decrease in penetration distance and increase in hardness after first laser treatment, maintenance of this trend when machining using a higher laser pulse power, followed by an increase in penetration and decrease in hardness after additional laser treatment at lower power input, due to which a surface with fewer defects is obtained. The change in Young’s modulus follows the change in other mechanical properties, but not a change in roughness. Therefore, the observed hardening with the increase of the laser pulse power and then a small softening with the use of additional treatment with lower power can be attributed to some processes of remelting, diffusion and crystallization, sensitive to the previous surface state and heat energy flux. Despite that, the laser treatment always caused a significant hardening of the surface layer.
Laser welding is used in modern industry, having many advantages comparing to traditional welding technologies. Nowadays, industry sectors such as shipbuilding, automotive and aviation can’t be imagined without laser processing technologies. Possibility of increase of welded joint properties, autogenous welding and high level of process automation makes the technology of laser welding perspective part of the industry. Physical multidimensional processes complexity requires a deeper understanding of the impact of laser welding parameters on the quality of welded joints for industrial implementation. The paper presents results of microstructure investigations of laser beam welded stainless steel under various welding parameters. Welded joints was achieved by Ytterbium fiber laser type without the use of the filler material. Material for test was 2205 ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steel (DSS) plates with thickness of 8 mm in delivery condition. The objectives of this research was to investigate influence of laser welding parameters on weld geometry of butt-welded joints. Investigations of bead shape revealed correlation between laser beam focus position and weld penetration depth.
A. Ziewiec, A. Zielińska-Lipiec, J. Kowalska and K. Ziewiec
The paper presents the results of the investigation of microstructure of the welded X5CrNiCuNb16-4 (17-4PH) steel after solution treatment and aging at 620°C for different periods. The microstructure and the phase composition of the steel was investigated using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness was measured for samples aged at different times. Density distributions of Cu precipitates were established. The investigation has shown that the microstructure of the X5CrNiCuNb16-4 steel welds after aging at 620 ° C consists of tempered martensite, fine Cu precipitates and austenite. It was observed that the size of the Cu precipitates increases with increasing the aging time, what affects the decrease of hardness. Simultaneously, the quantity of reversed austenite increases with increase of aging time. It was revealed that enrichment of the austenite in Ni, Cu and C affects the increase of Ms, but this factor does not determine the stability of austenite.
Copper tin sulfide (Cu2SnS3) is a unique semiconductor, whose nanocrystals have attracted researchers’ attention for its tunable energy bandgap and wavelength in visible and near infrared range. Quantum dots which are fabricated from this material are highly suitable for optoelectronics and solar cell applications. This paper discusses the tunable energy bandgap, exciton Bohr radius and wavelength range of wurtzite structure of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots to assess the opportunity to use them in optoelectronics applications. The considerations show that the mole fraction of copper increases as energy bandgap decreases and tunable energy bandgap of this quantum dot material is inversely proportional to the wavelength.
An aqueous colloidal solution was prepared at 80 °C and pH = 9 from suitable chemical compounds to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals and thin films. The ZnO crystals were grown in the colloidal solution under special conditions. Their micrographs showed ZnO rods with hexagonal structure. The number of the rods, increased over time. The ZnO thin films were produced on glass substrates in the same colloidal solution using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in different deposition times. The produced films were post-annealed for about one hour at 400 °C. Crystalline structure, phase transitions and nanostructure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZnO wurtzite structure was dominant, and by increasing the deposition time, the films became more crystalline. Nanostructure of the films changed from rod to wire and transformed into pyramid-like structures. Also, morphology of the films changed and re-nucleation ocurred. Optical reflectance was measured in the wavelength of 300 nm to 800 nm with a spectrophotometer. Other optical properties and optical band gaps were calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation on reflectivity curves. Second harmonic generation was calculated by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refraction and real part of susceptibilities were obtained. Both positive and negative nonlinear refractions appeared in the ZnO films. It is important for the use in optoelectronic devices. Electronic properties were assessed by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential calculation. The band gap structure and density of states were calculated.
Jian Chen, Xiongfei Li, Wei Li, Cong Li, Baoshan Xie, Shuowei Dai, Jian-Jun He and Yanjie Ren
Quasi-static uniaxial compressive tests of open-cell copper (Cu) foams (OCCF) were carried out on an in-situ bi-direction tension/compress testing machine (IBTC 2000). The effects of strain rate, porosity and pore size on the energy absorption of open-cell copper foams were investigated to reveal the energy absorption mechanism. The results show that three performance parameters of open-cell copper foams (OCCF), involving compressive strength, Young modulus and yield stress, increase simultaneously with an increase of strain rate and reduce with increasing porosity and pore size. Furthermore, the energy absorption capacity of OCCF increases with an increase of porosity and pore size. However, energy absorption efficiency increases with increasing porosity and decreasing pore size. The finite element simulation results show that the two-dimensional stochastic model can predict the energy absorption performance of the foam during the compressive process. The large permanent plastic deformation at the weak edge hole is the main factor that affects the energy absorption.
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 →6H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.