Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a clinical emergency that will increase the mortality if complicated with unstable hemodynamics. Because of its nonspecific clinical symptoms, it’s a great challenge to make a PE diagnosis. The golden standard to diagnose PE is computed tomography of pulmonary artery (CTPA), but a diagnosis of PE also composed of evaluation of PE risk factors, possibilities, and risk stratification. Ultrasonography may detect right ventricle strain related to hemodynamic change, intravascular thrombosis, thrombosis in right heart or pulmonary arteries, pulmonary infarction, and local pleural effusion. Combination of ultrasound and traditional PE possibility evaluation score may further improve the pretest probability of CTPA. A comprehensive ultrasonography may sometimes rule out PE and may disclose other causes for the clinical situations. A heart-lung-vessel-integrated multiorgan ultrasonography can help with the diagnosis of PE and so should be a necessary weapon for the physicians.
Gianluca Rigatelli, Fabio Dell’Avvocata, Marco Zuin, Sara Giatti, Khanh Duong, Trung Pham, Nguyen Si Tuan, Dobrin Vassiliev, Ramesh Daggubati and Thach Nguyen
Background and Objectives
Provisional and culotte are the most commonly used techniques in left main (LM) stenting. The impact of different post-dilation techniques on fluid dynamic of LM bifurcation has not been yet investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD), the impact of different post-dilation techniques including proximal optimization technique (POT), kissing balloon (KB), POT-Side-POT and POT–KB-POT, 2-steps Kissing (2SK) and Snuggle Kissing balloon (SKB) on flow dynamic profile after LM provisional or culotte stenting.
We considered an LM-LCA-LCX bifurcation reconstructed after reviewing 100 consecutive patients (mean age 71.4 ± 9.3 years, 49 males) with LM distal disease. The diameters of LAD and LCX were modelled according to the Finnet’s law as following: LM 4.5 mm, LAD 3.5 mm, LCX 2.75 mm, with bifurcation angle set up at 55°. Xience third-generation stent (Abbot Inc., USA) was reconstructed and virtually implanted in provisional/cross-over and culotte fashion. POT, KB, POT-side-POT, POT-KB-POT, 2SK and SKB were virtually applied and analyzed in terms of the wall shear stress (WSS).
Analyzing the provisional stenting, the 2SK and KB techniques had a statistically significant lower impact on the WSS at the carina, while POT seemed to obtain a neutral effect. In the wall opposite to the carina, the more physiological profile has been obtained by KB and POT with higher WSS value and smaller surface area of the lower WSS. In culotte stenting, at the carina, POT-KB-POT and 2SK had a very physiological profile; while at the wall opposite to the carina, 2SK and POT–KB-POT decreased significantly the surface area of the lower WSS compared to the other techniques.
From the fluid dynamic point of view in LM provisional stenting, POT, 2SK and KB showed a similar beneficial impact on the bifurcation rheology, while in LM culotte stenting, POT-KB-POT and 2SK performed slightly better than the other techniques, probably reflecting a better strut apposition.
The Chinese population typically has inadequate folate intake and no mandatory folic acid fortification. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are the two key regulatory enzymes in the folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Hcy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess whether the MTHFR gene A1298C and the MTRR gene A66G polymorphisms affect Hcy levels in the Chinese population.
This analysis included 13 studies with Hcy levels reported as one of the study measurements. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using random-effect models.
Overall, there were no significant differences in Hcy concentrations between participants with the MTHFR 1298 CC (12 trials, n = 129), AA (n = 2166; β, −0.51 μmol/L; 95%CI: −2.14, 1.11; P = 0.53), or AC genotype (n = 958; β, 0.55 μmol/L; 95%CI: −0.72, 1.82; P = 0.40). Consistently, compared to those with the MTRR 66 GG genotype (6 trials, n = 156), similar Hcy concentrations were found in participants with the AA (n = 832; β, −0.43 μmol/L; 95%CI: −1.04, 0.17; P = 0.16) or AG (n =743; β, −0.57 μmol/L; 95%CI: −1.46, 0.31; P = 0.21) genotype. Similar results were observed for the dominant and recessive models.
Neither the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism nor the MTRR A66G polymorphism affects Hcy levels in the Chinese population.
Nan Ge, Jinlong Hu, Siyu Sun, Enqiang Linghu, Zhendong Jin and Zhaoshen Li
To compare the efficiency of plastic and metal stents for symptomatic pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) drainage and analyze other main associated factors that affect the outcome of drainage therapy.
Rates of technical and clinical success, procedure-related side effects (hemorrhage, stent migration, and cyst rupture), reinterventions, and duration of hospital stay.
There were 52 patients, 40 patients underwent plastic stent placement and 12 patients underwent lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) placement. The total rate of technical success was 100%. The total rate of clinical success was 100%. The total rate of adverse events was 7.7% (4/52). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of plastic stents (P < 0.05, Exp B = 12.168) and the presence of a large cyst (P < 0.05, Exp B = 1.036) were shown to significantly increase the risk of reintervention. On multivariate linear regression analysis, etiology of pseudocyst (P < 0.05, B = −8.427, −9.785, −5.514) was associated with prolonged hospital stent, while stent type was not shown be a factor (P > 0.05).
Both plastic and LAMSs are proven to be highly efficient in PP drainage. The LAMS is superior in preventing complications such as migration and cyst leakage and reducing the rate of reintervention.
Ebada Said, Waleed El Agawy, Rehab Ahmed, Mohamed Hassany, Amal Ahmed, Hanan Fouad and Hosam Baiumy
Background and Objectives
According to the demographic health survey conducted in 2015, Egypt had 10% documented prevalence of anti-HBc positive patients aged 1-59 and 1% viremic patients amongst the population in the same age group, with a domination of genotype D. Several studies claimed the possible role of vitamin D deficiency in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease progression.
Patients and Methods
Serum vitamin D levels [25(OH D3] were assessed in 96 HBeAg negative non-cirrhotic chronic HBV patients and 25 healthy subjects classified as following: Group I: 48 chronic HBV patients with persistently normal ALT levels and HBV DNA level < 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; Group II: 48 chronic HBV patients with CHB with persistently elevated ALT and HBV DNA level ≥ 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; and Group III: 25 apparently healthy subjects with normal liver enzymes and negative hepatitis viral markers were taken as the control group.
Vitamin D was much more deficient in group II than in group I and group III being 11.55 ± 3.97 ng/mL, 15.03 ± 3.45, 27.00 ± 6.76 ng/mL (P < 0.001), respectively, and a strong negative correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and HBV DNA levels (P = 0.043) in groups I and II.
The current study showed high HBV DNA replication in patients with vitamin D deficiency suggesting the antimicrobial immunomodulatory role of vitamin D.
Xingshun Qi, Hongyu Li, Xiaodong Shao, Zhendong Liang, Xia Zhang, Ji Feng, Hao Lin and Xiaozhong Guo
Varices manifest as a major etiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. By contrast, non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. Pharmacological treatment differs between patients with variceal and non-variceal bleeding. Vasoconstrictors are recommended for the treatment of variceal bleeding, rather than non-variceal bleeding. In contrast, pump proton inhibitors are recommended for the treatment of non-variceal bleeding, rather than variceal bleeding. Herein, we present a case with liver cirrhosis and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had a high risk of rebleeding (i.e., Child–Pugh class C, hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis, low albumin, and high international normalized ratio and D-dimer). As the source of bleeding was obscure, only terlipressin without pump proton inhibitors was initially administered. Acute bleeding episode was effectively controlled. After that, an elective endoscopic examination confirmed that the source of bleeding was attributed to peptic ulcer, rather than varices. Based on this preliminary case report, we further discussed the potential role of vasoconstrictors in a patient with cirrhosis with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) management flow-chart is derived from experts’ opinion and is not evidence-based. Guidelines suggest BCS management should follow a stepwise strategy: medical therapy as first-line treatment, revascularization or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) if no response to medical therapy, and liver transplant as rescue therapy. Recent evidence suggests that only medical therapy results in a bad long-term outcome. The biggest criticism of guidelines is the indication that BCS should receive further treatment only when hemodynamic consequences of portal hypertension become clinically evident. Recent data support that in BCS liver fibrosis could arise from chronic microvascular ischemia. A reasoning model of BCS physiopathology is that impaired hepatic vein outflow has hemodynamic consequences on portal hypertension development and causes hepatic fibrosis and liver failure through chronic ischemic damage. On this assumption is the concept that relieving liver congestion could ameliorate liver function and prevent development of BCS complications. Recently, early interventional treatment with TIPS for BCS has been reported to be effective. Early TIPS seems to be the best option for BCS management. Future multicenter controlled studies should compare the outcome of BCS treated with early interventional treatment compared with stepwise strategy.