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Factors That Influence Surgical Margin State in Patients Undergoing Cold Knife Conization – A Single Center Experience

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the factors that influence the surgical margin state in patients undergoing cold knife conization at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

Materials and methods: We have retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients that underwent a cold knife conization at our Clinic in 2015. We cross-referenced the surgical margin state with the histopathological diagnosis (LSIL, HSIL or micro-invasive/invasive cancer), menopausal status of the patients, number of pregnancies, surgeon experience, operating time and cone depth. The data was analyzed with the Chi square test, Fisher’s exact test for categorical data and Student’s T test for continuous data and univariate and multivariate logistical regressions were performed.

Results: A total of 246 medical records have neen analyzed, out of which 29 (11.79%) patients had LSIL, 194 (78.86%) had HSIL and 23 (9.34%) patients suffered micro-invasive/invasive cervical cancer. The surgical margins were positive in 78 (31.7%) of the patients. The average age of the patients was 41.13 and 35 (14.23%) of the patients were menopausal. The multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative forceps biopsy of micro-invasive SCC, HSIL or higher cone specimen histology and shorter cone depth as independent predictors of surgical margin involvement in patients undergoing cold knife conization.

Conclusion: In the current study, we have found no association between the inherent characteristics of the patient and the surgeon and the surgical margin state after a CKC. The most important predictors for positive margins were the severity of the lesion and the cone depth.

Open access
in PRILOZI
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Direct Determination of Diazepam in Whole Blood and Serum – Optimization of Solid-Phase Extraction Method

Abstract

Herein, we present a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV-detection for the direct determination of diazepam in whole blood and serum that can be used for monitoring diazepam levels in clinical samples analysis. The isolation of diazepam and the internal standard bromazepam from serum and whole blood samples was performed using solid phase extraction method with RP select B cartridges. The analytes were separated employing a reversed phase C8 column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1 % (V/V) triethylamine in water (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (63:37, V/V). UV detection was carried out at 240 nm. Linearity was achieved in the range from 10.0-1000.0 ng/ml for serum and whole blood. The method was applied to spiked and real biological samples after an oral administration of 10 mg diazepam. In conclusion, the proposed method is simple, rapid and provides efficient clean-up of the complex biological matrix and high recovery of diazepam.

Open access
in PRILOZI
The History of Bone Tumour Treatment and the State of the Art in Vienna

Abstract

Purposes:Bone tumours have been a tragedy for the patient in any time period. In the majority of the cases it occurs in children or young adults. In the past the affected limbs could not be spared and the overall prognosis was poor.

Methods:Chemotherapy successfully introduced for the purpose of overcoming the poor overall prognosis (Rosen and Jaffe) and tumour prostheses were invented for the purpose of salvaging the affected limbs (Marcove, Scales, Campanacci, Sivas, Salzer).

According to the Vienna Tumour Registry in 1968, the first custom-made Vitallium prosthesis for the proximal femur was implanted in a parosteal osteosarcoma.

Results: In Vienna, as a result of the successful chemotherapy the surgical methods for bone tumours changed to limb sparing methods also. A modular ceramic prosthesis for the proximal humerus was introduced by Salzer. From 1975 -1982 16 custom-made endoprosthesis (1) for the knee region were implanted which were replaced by the KMFTR in 1982 (2, Kotz modular femur tibia reconstruction system) which was introduced at the “2nd ISOLS” to an international group of experts. The successful system was followed by the HMRS (Howmedica modular resection system) in 1988. At that time, especially in children, the rotation-plasty of Borgreve was adopted for tumours of the knee region (2). A scientific survey of 70 patients with rotation-plasty until 1991 showed excellent clinical and oncologic results. Later a similar approach was used in upper extremity tumours as “resection replantation” with surprisingly good results. Sophisticated technologies with growing mechanisms allowed the use of endoprostheses even in children (3) for the purpose of substitution since the mutilating rotation-plasty in 1996.

Conclusion: For almost 100 years efforts have been undertaken to improve the treatment of bone tumours. Surgery was aiming to keep the function of the limbs by tumour resection instead of amputation. Together with successful chemotherapy, which saves lives, an adequate surgery could stepwise salvage the function of the limb. Body integrity was the final aim for the diseased. Finally, by the effort of the International Societies like ISOLS and EMSOS the survival of malignant bone tumour patients improved from 20% to 80 % with good function quality by sophisticated operative techniques and improved tumour prostheses.

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in PRILOZI
Mobile Application “Neurogame” for Assessment the Attention, Focus and Concentration

Abstract

Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is still unknown what physiological functions can be monitored at clinical quality. In medicine their use is cited in many fields (cardiology, pulmology, endocrinology, rheumatology, pediatrics as well as in the field of mental health).

The aim of this paper is to explain how the use of mobile application can help clients to improve the index of their focus, concentration and motor skills. Our original developed application on Android operating system, named “neurogame” is based on an open source platform to enable assessment and therapeutic stimulation, focus and concentration with the ability to monitor the progress of the results obtained in a larger number of participants (normal subjects as well as patients with different disorders) over a period of time.

Whilst nowadays the predominant focus is on the pharmacological treatments, there is a rapidly growing interest in research on alternative options that will offer help in many cases of disorder management in terms of mobile application games.

In order to have some kind of “norms”, we evaluated a group of healthy population. Obtained results will serve as a database for comparison the future results. This article displays the results obtained as database.

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in PRILOZI
Moleculary Confirmed, Cytogenetic Remission in a Case with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treated with Azacitidne

Abstract

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a diverse group of clonal hematologic neoplasms. The only curative treatment for MDS is allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Epigenetic changes play an important role in the pathogenesis of MDS and treatment with DNA methyl transferase inhibitors, Azacitidine, significantly prolong the survival of high-risk MDS patients. Here we report a case of a 58-year-old male presented with pancytopenia, macrocytosis, and hyperplastic bone marrow with 3-lineage dysplasia with ~14% of myeloid blasts. Cytogenetic studies with G banding showed normal karyotype. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) screening for most predictive cytogenetic abnormalities of MDS showed loss of the Y chromosome. Those findings later were confirmed with Quantitative Fluorescent (QF)-PCR and specific MLPA for Y chromosome, showing loss of the Y chromosome in >80% of cells. He was diagnosed with MDS-RAEB2 according to 2008 WHO classification and stratified into high risk group (IPSS score 5). Unrelated allogeneic SCT was planed and bridging treatment with Azacitidine at a dose of 75mg/m2/daily subcutaneously for 7 days every 28 days was initiated. Hematologic improvements, according to the International Working Group 2006 criteria, were observed after 4 cycles of Azacitidine treatment. After 6 cycles, complete hematological remission was achieved. Interestingly, molecular analysis performed after the 8th cycle showed normal presence of Y chromosome indicating a cytogenetic remission, molecularly confirmed. Maintenance treatment with Azacitidine was assigned, and the scheduled SCT was postponed. Experience from our case showed that the loss of the Y chromosome was related to the disease onset, and indicated that Azacitidine might be consider as effective treatment for MDS cases associated with good cytogenetic

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in PRILOZI
Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence, Genetic Factors

Abstract

Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome. A genetic screening for mutations in monogenic obesity in children with early, rapid-onset or severe obesity, severe hyperphagia, hypogonadism, intestinal dysfunction, hypopigmentation of hair and skin, postprandial hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus, abnormal leptin level and coexistence of lean and obese siblings in the family discovers many genetic forms of obesity. There are about 30 monogenic forms of obesity. In addition, obesity is different in ethnic groups, and the types of monogenic obesity differ. In brief, an increasing number of genes and genetic mechanisms in children continue to be discovered. This sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms of obesity and potentially gives a target for new forms of treatment.

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in PRILOZI
Rare Renal Disease in Macedonia – An Update

Abstract

Rare renal diseases (RRD) are an important category of rare disease (RD) as they can do great damage to the patients, families and society. The patient may undergo years even decades of numerous investigations including invasive procedures and yet not have definitive and precise diagnose and therefore, no opportunity for appropriate treatment. The great progress in molecular genetic techniques characterized many Mendelian diseases on molecular level. This gave the possibility for appropriate prevention and treatment interventions, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. Herein, we summarize the current status of RRD in Macedonia. The research interest of Macedonian clinicians and scientists is focused on the genetics of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, cystic diseases and cilliopathies with collaborations with eminent laboratories in Unites States and Europe. This collaboration resulted in detection of new genes and pathophysiological pathways published in The New England Journal of Medicine and in other high impact journals. Macedonian health professionals have knowledge and equipment for diagnosis of RRD. Unfortunately the lack of finances is great obstacle for early and appropriate diagnosis. Participation in the international registries, studies and trials should be encouraged. This would result in significant benefit for the patients, health professionals and science.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Secondary Hodgkin Lymphoma and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) After Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Treatment in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer

Abstract

Herein synchronous occurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma and secondary myelodysplastic syndrome in a 60 year old male patient with small cell lung cancer treated with combined chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) and radiotherapy is presented. The objective of this report is to stress the importance of documenting and monitoring adverse drug reactions that arise from chemotherapy.

After four years of treatment with the combined chemotherapy, the patient presented inguinal lymphadenopathy and enlarged lymph nodes and histopathology rapport was suggestive for plasmacytoid variant of Castleman disease. Three years later, biopsy of lymph node was performed and diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma – mixed cellularity has been established. Molecular analyses revealed presence of dominant monoclonal population of the immunoglobulin genes in the oligo/monoclonal background. Bone marrow biopsy findings suggested secondary myelodysplasia and revealed signs of hematopoietic cells dismaturation with signs of megaloblastic maturation of the erytropoetic lineage, appearance of ALIP (abnormal localization of immature precursors) in the myeloid lineage and dysplastic megakaryocytes. In addition, an increased level of polyclonal plasmacytes (lambda vs kappa was 60%:40%) was found.

Hodgkin lymphoma and MDS occurring after 4 years of carboplatin/paclitaxel therapy might be contributed to the accumulation of alkylator-related DNA damage. This emphasize the need of outlining a monitoring plan regarding development of secondary leukemia and other malignant hematological proliferations should be outlined in the protocols.

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in PRILOZI
The Use of Smartphone in Medical Practice

Abstract

In this review we present some data about the use of mobile phones in medical practice. The results of over hundred studies cited in PubMed during the last few years have been discussed. The article gives background connected with a project in the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts referring to a personal mobile phone application named “Neurogame” which is currently constructed to evaluate motor skills related to attention and concentration in different samples of people.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Anorexia: Anormal Phobia of Normal Weight

Abstract

Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors.

Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society).

We showed that specific personality traits are characteristic for both, young patients and mothers. Sublimation of emotional stress by exceptional performances, accompanied by food restrictive consumption together with hypersensitivity, oppositional behavior and aggression are specific for this disorder. High levels of self-imposed standards increase the risk for psychological distress, especially for eating disorder symptomatology.

Both genders could be involved as patients. Boys must be especially followed for possible psychiatric manifestation.

We confirmed that the biofeedback as additional therapeutic modality is very useful.

Open access
in PRILOZI