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Open access

Ingmārs Cinkmanis, Guntis Gailums and Sanita Vucāne

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare dark beer before and after a freeze drying rehydration cycle. The pH, colour, and concentrations of extract, organic acids, and phenolic compounds were determined. Dark beer before and after freeze drying was analysed using standard brewing analysis methods of the Mitteleuropäische Brautechnische Analysenkommision (MEBAK) and two types of chromatography: high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Increase of pH was not observed in dark beer after freeze drying. Dissolved powdered beer in deionised water was clear, dark brown, without sediments, and reproduced the original commercially available dark beer, with original extract substance content 8.88%. Concentrations of the following organic acids were determined: oxalic, tartaric, quinic, malic, ascorbic, lactic, acetic, citric, fumaric, and succinic. Volatile compounds by GC/MS analysis were isolated from dark beer before and after freeze drying.

Open access

Uldis Bērziņš, Ilze Matise-VanHoutana, Ilze Pētersone, Ilmārs Dūrītis, Sergejs Ņikuļšins, Ance Bogdanova-Jātniece, Mārtiņš Kālis, Šimons Svirskis, Dace Skrastiņa, Agnese Ezerta and Tatjana Kozlovska

Abstract

The study characterises canine adipose-derived stem cells (cASCs) in comparison to human ASCs (hASCs) and tests their safety in a canine model after intravenous administration. cASCs from two dogs were cultured under hypoxic conditions in a medium supplemented with autologous serum. They were plastic adherent, spindle-shaped cells that expressed CD73, CD90, and CD44 but lacked CD45, CD14, HLA-DR, and CD34. cASCs differentiated toward adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, although adipogenic differentiation capacity was low. Blast transformation reaction demonstrated that these cells significantly suppress T-cell proliferation, and this ability is dose-dependent. Intravenous administration of a cell freezing medium, therapeutic dose of cASCs (2 × 106 live cells/kg), and five times higher dose of cASCs showed no significant side effects in two dogs. Microscopic tissue lesions were limited to only mild, non-specific changes. There were no signs of malignancy. The results of the study indicate that cASCs are similar to hASCs and are safe for therapeutic applications in a canine model. The proposed methodology for ASC preparation on a non-routine basis, which includes individually optimised cell culture conditions and offers risk-adapted treatment, could be used for future personalised off-the-shelf therapies, for example, in myocardial infarction or stroke.

Open access

Māra Dūma, Ina Alsiņa, Laila Dubova and Ieva Erdberga

Abstract

Tomato is known as a vegetable with several health benefits due to its high level of bioactive compounds, especially lycopene, phenolics, and vitamin C. The effect of tomato variety and stage of maturity on the bioactive compounds concentration was studied. Ten tomato varieties were grown and collected from a greenhouse at two different stages of ripening. The obtained results showed that there were significant differences in the mean values between analysed parameters according to the stage of ripening and variety. The highest concentration of vitamin C was determined for variety Sakura F1 at maturity stage, and the lowest for variety Sunstreem F1 for unripe fruits. The concentration of phenols and flavonoids increased during tomato ripening and the highest rate was observed for variety Naget F1 (from 7.86 mg·100g−1 to 14.34 mg·100 g−1 (phenols) and flavonoids from 6.09 mg·100 g−1 to 10.03 mg·100 g−1. The concentration of lycopene in the unripe stage was low (mostly about 1 mg·100 g−1) and the most quantitative changes and the highest concentration of lycopene in full maturity stage was determined for variety SV0946TS (27.11 mg·100 g−1) and variety NectarF1 (16.81 mg·100 g−1).

Open access

Kristīna Antoņenko, Linda Briede, Viesturs Kreicbergs, Arturs Vīksna and Konstantins Bavrins

Abstract

Trace elements selenium, copper, and zinc are essential minerals for the human body. One of the means to increase the micronutrient content in diets is to add them to food raw materials, for example, to enrich grain with micronutrients during malt production. To obtain rye malt, 3 kg grain was soaked in 10 l water with addition of three mineral salts — sodium selenate (Na2SeO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4 5H2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 7H2O) at different concentrations and different combination of salts. The concentration of selenium, copper, and zinc was determined in rye malt. The obtained results were used to calculate the degree of assimilation of trace elements in rye malt. The interaction of trace elements selenium/copper and copper/zinc was studied. The total amount of selenium, copper, and zinc was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sample preparation for elemental analysis was performed by wet acid digestion in a closed microwave mineralisation system. The selenium assimilation degree in rye malt was within 10.6 to 12.2%. Accordingly, copper assimilation was 32.8 to 38.0% and zinc 49.3 to 57.0%. Simultaneous presence of selenium/copper and copper/zinc during rye grain soaking promoted the assimilation of each mineral, compared with only one mineral additive.

Open access

Normunds Sūna, Evija Gūtmane, Lelde Liepiņa, Anastasija Tomilova and Valdis Folkmanis

Abstract

Both alcohol use disorder and depression are important aspects of health in the general population and among patients with epilepsy. Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy, thereby increasing morbidity as well as mortality rate. From our experience, we can see that one third of epilepsy inpatients experience seizures that are alcohol-related. There have been no studies conducted in Latvia about alcohol use disorder and depression in patients with alcohol-related seizures (ARS) and epilepsy. We recruited 108 patients with ARS, 44 of whom had comorbid epilepsy. 75% of patients in our study had depression according to the Hamilton depression scale. Higher score in the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test was associated with thoughts of self-harm. Greater consumption of alcohol on a typical day when drinking was associated with a higher risk of alcohol dependence. Of patients without epilepsy, 60% received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and 17% even used 2–3 different drugs to overcome ARS. A large part of patients had not been warned by their physician that alcohol provokes seizures. Our data could help to identify greater suicidality risk and alcohol dependence risk cases in patients with ARS, as well as improve care for this group of patients in general.

Open access

Ida Jākobsone

Open access

Maria Isabella Sifola, Linda Carrino, Eugenio Cozzolino, Sara Ianuario, Andrea Lucibelli and Adele Coppola

Summary

Nitrogen (N) fertilization of Kentucky dark fire-cured tobacco can be used to increase weight of high quality cured leaves for cigar manufacture. We conducted field experiments at 11 different locations in the province of Benevento (Southern Italy) where the following four N treatments were compared: 1) unfertilized control (N0); 2) a site-specific N rate, calculated by a N fertilization plan (NFP) based on physical and chemical soil characteristics, which ranged between 113 and 145 kg N ha−1; 3) 200 kg N ha−1 (rate commonly used by farmers, N200); 4) 100 kg N ha−1 (half of the rate commonly used by farmers, N100). Yields of the following five commercial quality categories of cured leaves were measured: i) wrappers, ii) heavy filler (Fh), iii) light filler (Fl), iv) heavy shredded (Sh) and v) light shredded (Sl). Fh cured products of B1, B4, B6 and B10 locations were analyzed for: total alkaloids, reducing sugars, chlorides, total N (Kjeldahl), ammonium-N (NH4-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). Color parameters: Lightness (L), Chroma (C) and Hue (H) were determined on five cured leaves / plot of both Fh and Fl types at B1, B2, B3, B6, B8 and B10. A blind evaluation of cured leaves collected across locations was conducted by a panel test who considered the main basic characteristics of cured leaves (stalk position, leaf structure, texture, etc.). The total yield of cured products increased with fertilization across locations, up to NFP treatment, without any statistically significant increase at N200 treatment. Fertilization increased yield of wrappers at B1 up to NFP treatment (113.5 kg N ha−1), without any significant increase at N200 treatment. Yield of light filler product was positively influenced by fertilization up to the maximum dose only in 5 out of 11 locations. Total alkaloids significantly increased with increasing fertilization up to 100 kg N ha−1 without any significant changes at higher N rate. Fertilization hardly increased L and C of Fl leaves, which appeared light-brown but brilliant-colored. There was a reduction in the H value of Fh products which indicated a darker tone of those leaves with respect to Fl. Increasing N rate affected production costs more than revenues. According to agronomic results, in most locations the best results in terms of net revenues were obtained by NFP treatment. Considering that N rates above the NFP would disqualify growers from the economic aids provided by EU agrienvironmental measures, by economic point of view the NFP treatment would be recommended over the current grower standard (N200).

Open access

Linyu Gao, Yi Zhang, Liu Hong, Bingyang Xu, Yaoshuo Sang, Zhengyu Xu, Mingjian Zhang, Songjin Zheng, Xue Yun, Wenqi Li, Xiaoling Tang and Bin Li

Summary

In order to investigate the main factors behind hot coal fallout during cigarette smoking, an in-use behavior survey among smokers was conducted in three locations (Guiyang, Shijiazhuang and Nanchang) in China. In addition, a measuring device was designed to record whether a flicking or tapping force was exerted to remove ash and to record the force applied as well as their characteristic parameters. We found that there was no significant difference among the behavior characteristic parameters of the users in the three locations. The proportion of consumers who applied flicking was higher than the proportion of consumers tapping. There were some differences in the in-use behavior when smoking King Size and Superslim cigarettes. The work could help to develop a suitable hot coal fallout test method.

Open access

Serban C. Moldoveanu, Thomas Poole and Wayne A. Scott

Summary

The present study describes the analysis of several organic acids in tobacco and smokeless tobacco products using a liquid chromatography (LC) method with mass spectrometric (MS) detection (LC-MS). Prior to the application of the LC-MS method, a qualitative analysis for the identification of the organic acids in tobacco and oral tobacco products was performed. The qualitative method used direct silylation of the plant material followed by GC-MS separation and detection. For the acids’ quantitation, a novel LC-MS method has been developed and validated. The acids of interest for quantitation were the following: acetic, citric, fumaric, glyceric, lactic, maleic, malic, oxalic, pyroglutamic, pyruvic, quinic, and trihydroxybutanoic. The LC separation was performed on a Synergy 4u Hydro-RP column 250 × 4.6 mm, with an aqueous mobile phase containing 5% methanol and 0.15% formic acid. The LCMS method has the advantage versus LC methods with other detection types (refractive index, UV absorption at low UV range, or conductivity) of being capable of positive identification of the analytes based on their specific ions, and of having significantly better sensitivity. Unfortunately, the LC-MS method was not generating good results for oxalic acid and acetic acid also expected to be present in some samples of tobacco or tobacco products. The study describes the advantages and disadvantages of the LC-MS method for the analysis of organic acids in tobacco and smokeless tobacco products.

Open access

Wolf-Dieter Heller and Gerhard Scherer