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Infrared Signature Suppression Systems in Modern Military Helicopters

Abstract

Helicopters play an important role in air-to-ground fire covering and the short-distance air-to-air fights, as well as the anti-tank missions and battlefield force transferring. The detection and survivability of helicopters on a battlefield significantly depends on their infrared emissions level, as well as the methods, equipment and systems used by potential enemy. The automatic detection systems, recognition and identification of flying objects use among other the thermo-detection methods, which rely on detecting the infrared radiation emitted by the tracked object. Furthermore, due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in a helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. In order to increase the combat effectiveness and survivability of military helicopters, several different types of the infrared suppressor (IRS) have been developed. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular examples of the infrared signature suppression systems.

Open access
Manufacturing and Testing of Carbon Composite Samples Intended for Aviation

Abstract

The paper presents the manufacturing technology and quality control of samples made of composite materials intended, inter alia, for aircraft elements. The samples are made from carbon fiber reinforced prepreg in a polymer matrix which is commonly used in the aerospace industry. The authors described the dimensional requirements for samples made of composite materials for strength testing, and the main stages of production which have a direct impact on the quality of composite samples. Also presented is the technological process of producing flat carbon composite panels for composite samples, cutting the produced panels with a CNC plotter, cutting the samples on a conventional milling machine, and surface treatment of the samples on a surface grinder. The machining parameters that were experientially found to be optimal for the milling and grinding of carbon samples are specified as well. Finally, the method of quality control of the ready composite samples is described and solutions are presented to improve the production of high-quality samples.

Open access
Measuring and Testing the Parameters of a Battery Pack Designed for Powering Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Various Temperatures

Abstract

This paper describes results of tests dedicated to studying – in simulated environmental conditions – operation of a battery pack designed for powering unmanned aircraft systems. In particular, the tests concerned determining the electrical parameters of battery packs, with and without radiators, during their operation in changing environmental conditions and resistance to large temperature fluctuations. Amicell, a high density lithium polymer battery manufactured by the Israeli Amit Industries ltd., was selected for testing. The test results present characteristics of the batteries tested in different temperatures and allow for designing and trying out proper battery protections against environmental conditions, with the intention to attain continuous and correct operation. The tests have been carried out in the accredited Environmental Test Laboratory which is part of the Department of Avionics of the Institute of Aviation in Poland.

Open access
Particle-In-Cell Electrostatic Numerical Algorithm

Abstract

Existing global models of interaction between the solar wind (SW) and the local interstellar medium (LISM) describe the heliosphere that arises as a result of this interaction. There is a strong motivation to develop a kinetic model using the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method to describe phenomena which appear in the heliosphere. This is however a long term scientific goal. This paper describes an electrostatic Particle-in-Cell numerical model developed in the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, which includes mechanical and charge exchange collisions between particles in the probabilistic manner using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. This is the first step into developing simulations of the heliosphere incorporating kinetic effects in collisionless plasmas. In this paper we focus only on presenting the work, which have been done on the numerical PIC algorithm.

Open access
Temperature Measurements in the Detonation Chamber Supplied by Air from Centrifugal Compressor and Gaseous Hydrogen

Abstract

In this paper, the experimental results of a detonation chamber fed by air from a centrifugal compressor are presented. The detonation chamber was equipped with many different sensors, mostly thermocouples, which were placed in 11 different positions. The distribution of temperature changes along the chamber and radial temperature profile at the outlet are provided. The results here confirm the existence of high mixture stratification. Such mixture stratifications and temperature profiles may be used as an additional chamber wall cooling method. The experiments performed, address key issues regarding the chamber choking problem caused by turbines. The relationship between the turbine performance and detonation chamber are crucial for proper control of turbine jet engine.

Open access
Considerations on the Benefits of Using Recyclable Materials for Road Construction

Abstract

A current worldwide economy problem includes both the responsible management of the planet's non-renewable resources and the waste management. The benefits of using recyclable materials and recycling technologies with asphalt mixtures consist mainly of reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It is well known that oil (from which bitumen is obtained) is a non-renewable resource, hence the its price increase. Therefore, at present, the world is looking for solutions that will lead to a better use of natural resources and to an economic integration of sub-products from various industries. This paper intends to raise awareness of the possibilities for asphalt mixtures recycling and of the recyclable materials that can be used as additives with benefits of each.

Open access
Dynamic Test of a Viaduct on the Orastie–Sibiu Highway

Abstract

Dynamic testing of bridges has as target to establish their response on pulse forces between the wheels and unevenness of road surface. Generally, during the tests, real time accelerations or deformations are to be measured and which through successive processing methods lead to other data as velocities, displacements, dynamic impact factor, but also the damping ratio. In order to validate the bridge response following testing, the measured data are compared both with allowable limits existing in standards and with the results obtained using analytical or numerical models.

In Romania, the dynamic testing of bridges is recommended by the current standards, only for important bridges, erected in complex or special solutions and also for large span bridges.

The aim of this paper is to outline the results obtained from the on-site measurements during dynamic testing of a viaduct placed on the motorway A1, sector Orăştie-Sibiu. The bridge superstructure is a composite one, continuous girder on 12 spans: 40+10×60+40 m, the substructure consisting in 11 piers with lamellar elevations and variable height in the range 8.50-24m.

In the paper a finite element model is also presented which was used for time-history analyses using an impulse type load. Finally, the results obtained on the site and using the numerical model are compared and discussed.

Open access
Flexible Pavement Design Criterion Based on Octahedral Shear Stresses

Abstract

The judicious pavement design is the key factor in achieving the longest service life and the lowest maintenance and rehabilitation costs. It is based on the consideration of the phenomena in which the pavement structures are subjected to exploitation and the limitation of their destructive effects.

The aim of this study is to verify the possibility of implementing in the flexible pavement structures design practice of another design criterion based on limiting the bituminous mixtures creep phenomenon and that to be called: The criterion of admissible octahedral shear stresses in the bituminous layers.

Estimation of octahedral shear stresses is done with a calculation model based on finite element method, and hereafter referred to as 2D ASFEM (2D Axi-Symmetric Finite Element Model). The paper presents the results obtained by modeling several specific calculation assumptions for the behaviour of flexible pavement structures in service.

The study underlines the fact that the Octahedral Shear Stresses Ratio (OSSR) can be an additional design criterion to be taken into account when designing flexible pavement structures alongside other established criteria.

Open access
Seismic Isolation of Bridges Using the Principle of Electromagnetic Attraction and Repulsion

Abstract

This paper presents a new type of seismic isolator that uses the principle of electromagnetic attraction and repulsion, to control the friction force between two electromagnets during earthquakes. The two electromagnets are used in conjunction with a secondary high friction dissipating and damping mechanism composed from a 10mm thick neoprene ring layer and two steel surfaces coated with Si3N4 that are used to dissipate the kinetic energy in the bridge deck at some maximum ground accelerations. The isolator utilizes tri-axial accelerometers embedded in the abutments, high current rechargeable batteries and an automated controlling unit. The presented isolator was developed specifically for a concrete bridge deck with a span of 36 meters and simple supported on two abutments, using time history electromagnetic and structural analyses. The paper presents the advantages of using this active seismic isolation system, compared to classical passive devices and the important results obtained in terms of decreasing internal forces on the substructure elements cross sections together with the reduction of relative displacements between the two electromagnets.

Open access
Significance of Fines in Hot Mix Asphalt Synthesis

Abstract

According to their size, aggregates are classified in coarse grained, fine grained, and fines. The determination of fines content in aggregate materials is very simple and is performed through the aggregate washing during the sieving procedure to define the gradation curve. The very fine material consists of grains having a size lower than 63 μm. The presence of fines directly influences the composition and performance of concrete and asphalt mixtures (e.g. asphalt content, elasticity, fracture). The strength and load carrying capacity of hot mix asphalt (HMA) results from the aggregate framework created through particle-particle contact and interlock. Fines or mineral filler have a role in HMA. The coarse aggregate framework is filled by the sand-sized material and finally by the mineral filler. At some point, the smallest particles lose contact becoming suspended in the binder not having the particle-particle contact that is created by the larger particles. The overall effect of mineral filler in hot mix asphalt specimens has been investigated through a series of laboratory tests. It is clear that a behaviour influenced by the adherence of fines to asphalt film has been developed. The optimum bitumen content requirement in case of stone filler is almost the same as that for fly ash. It has been found that the percentage of fly ash filler is crucial if it exceeds approximately a value of 4%.

Open access