M. Gorazda, Ł. Hardt, T. Kwarciński and Marian Gorynia
The study presents the empirical analysis of firms’ involvement in different forms of internationalisation: export, indirect export, import, indirect import and finally simultaneous exporting and importing. The analysis is based on firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Survey (March 2017 release). The empirical part is divided into two stages. Firstly account is taken of firms’ heterogeneity and then a Melitz type analysis of the firms’ likeliness of being involved in international activity is performed. Secondly the sample of firms is limited to only those involved in the internationalisation process and then a regression is carried out with the export/import intensity being the dependent variable. The results indicate that determinants of the foreign markets are different from those connected with trade intensity with the exception of the foreign ownership which is the only one associated in the same way with involvement in internationalisation and with its intensity.
The aim of the paper is to reflect upon the dilemma or whether the EU will continue the integration process in the Western Balkans or backlash on regional cooperation instruments and initiatives within the framework of the Western Balkans. The Regional Economic Area (REA) is analyzed as the more recent policy of the European Union for the remaining Balkan countries. It is crucial to analyze the idea behind REA, starting from two main assumptions: first, the creation of REA stemmed from EU internal challenges; and second, REA came up as a creative EU approach in efforts to find a specific model for reforms in the Western Balkans in the frame of regional institutions. The paper also discusses regional trade and specifically the role of the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) in coordinating these initiatives in the Western Balkans. Taking into consideration the EU current challenges as well as difficulties of the Western Balkan countries to overcome the political and economic problems, then regional cooperation could appear as an alternative to the EU integration process for the Western Balkans. The main conclusion of this paper is that the Western Balkans needs the EU’s direct support, in particular, since RCC and other regional instruments cannot enforce, support and monitor the initiatives and reforms in the region.
Andreja Nekrep, Sebastjan Strašek and Darja Boršič
This paper focuses on investment in research and development as a factor of labour productivity and economic growth. Our analysis confirms the link between expenditure for research and development (expressed in % of GDP) and labour productivity (expressed in the number of hours worked) based on selected data for EU Member States in the period 1995-2013. A causal link between variables of the concave parabola was confirmed, and the value of expenditure for research and development (2.85% of EU GDP) maximising productivity (per hour of work) was determined based on the examined data. In accordance with these findings, EU’s target of reaching 3% of GDP spent on research and development to be achieved by 2020 seems in support of reaching maximum productivity in the EU.
The aim of this paper is to carry out a comparative study for nationality diversity in bank boards. The study covers practices of board diversity of nine commercial banks. The data are compared for subsidiary banks in Bulgaria and their parent banks from the home country. The study defines a high degree of nationality diversity in subsidiary banks. The Bulgarian banks have a higher number of foreign members on boards compared to their parent banks. The good practices on board diversity in Bulgarian banks are a consequence of their subordination in European financial conglomerates and are aimed to reduce agent conflicts.
The aim of this article is to test, from an empirical standpoint, the existence of sustainable public finances in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) area as a whole, over the most recent period of the world economy, 1973-2016. The research methods include not only standard stationarity tests, but also tests, which allow for a structural break. The relevant results of this research are a stationary public budget balance expressed as a percentage of GDP and a debt to GDP ratio that is stationary in first differences. According to the literature, this means that a “necessary and sufficient” condition is fulfilled for proving the existence of a strong sustainability. We hope this research can make a valuable contribution to the debate regarding public finances in the world economy. To obtain other relevant conclusions, additional tests will need to be performed in the future in order to assess which members are contributing to the fiscal sustainability of the OECD aggregate.
Bożena Ryszawska and Justyna Zabawa
Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible entities. Their reports and disclosures are produced according to the internationally recognized standards. There are also critical opinions about the standards for reporting environmental information, but the weaknesses of reporting these aspects do not undermine the benefits of using the GRI guidelines.
Martha Cantú Cavada, Vito Bobek, Hazbo Skoko and Anita Maček
This paper analyses possible challenges and opportunities that Mexican female entrepreneurs face during the establishment of new enterprises. Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, authors researched opportunities in the form of governmental and non-governmental institutional support, growing entrepreneurship, social awareness and women empowerment. However, lack of credibility, fear of vulnerability to criticism and social pressure are some challenges associated with gender egalitarianism. In such, the authors proved that Mexican culture impacts women in some ways more than the others. Institutional collectivism was the cultural dimension with higher positive impact on women, followed by gender egalitarianism with a neutral to positive impact and the power distance with a neutral influence on women.