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Orchard’s Pruning for Energy Purposes – Methodology of Environmental Impact Assessment of New Logistic Chain Developed within Europruning Project – Part 1

Abstract

The energy potential from pruning residues of permanent crops is significant. However, there is not much data about the environmental influence of the processes related to harvesting, storage and transportation of pruning residues. In this paper, the methodology of analysis of the environmental impact assessment applied within the EuroPruning project is presented. The screening and scoping steps in accordance with Directive 97/11/EC as well as other procedures included in ISO 14001 methodology, which are related to the environmental impact, are described. As a result, the selected approach for the determination of the potential environmental effects, including risk description and prevention actions is presented.

Open access
Orchards Pruning to Energy – The Results of the Environmental Impact Assessment of the New Logistic Chain Developed within the Europruning Project – Part 2

Abstract

To determine the environmental impact, the assessment of the Euro-Pruning project strategy has been carried out in accordance with the checking and scooping list related to Directive 97/11/EC. Additionally, some suggestions and recommendations to prevent/minimize the hazard of accidents or negative interaction on surrounding have been elaborated (according to the suggested procedure in ISO 14001 methodology: risk definition and prevention action proposal). As a consequence, the results of the inspection during the demo tests taking place in different orchards/plantations regarding the performance of the machineries operation, farmers’ habits and pruning residues harvesting procedures have been presented, in order to diagnose and determine possible risks that may occur and influence negatively the local environment. Similar activities have been carried out during the storage tests and transportation processes.

Open access
Profile of Fatty Acids and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Selected Vegetable Oils Extracted by Cold Maceration

Abstract

Biodiesel has become more attractive material for its properties such as biodegradability, renewability and very low toxicity of its combustion products. A higher quality of this fuel is essential in its potential commercialization. Analytical methods used in biodiesel analysis are constantly refined. The most popular analytical techniques include chromatography and molecular spectroscopy. The ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is one of the most important methods of spectroscopy. This paper presents the results of studies on selected oils of natural origin using ATR-FTIR infrared absorption spectroscopy. Three types of oils from pumpkin seeds and winter rapeseed were analysed. The main fatty acids were also determined in all the samples.

Open access
Analysis of Delays and Extension of Execution Duration of a Road Project

Abstract

The implementation of road infrastructure projects often results in delays due to objective causes, with repercussions on the final execution deadline and with value implications. The use of critical path method for planning and the executin windows, will result in better time process management and optimization delays.

Open access
Analysis of Injection Systems Types Used in Agricultural Machines

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of the processes taking place in fuel systems which lead to damage of injection devices in farm machines. The most frequent reasons of failure of traditional injection systems and Common Rail high pressure systems which are caused inter alia by an improper quality of diesel oil were described and discussed. Microscopic tests of the surface of worn plungers of the plunger and barrel assemby of Motorpal injection pumps used in Zetor tractors were carried out. Types of damage to elements of the injection pump and electromagnetic injectors used in Common Rail systems CP4 type based on the tests on the group of 126 on-site repairs were assessed. Repairs were made in the repair centres in Podkarpackie Voivodeship and centres dealing with repair of injection systems. Metallographic tests were carried out in the Laboratory of Materials of Rzeszow University of Technology with the use of electrone scanning microscope Hitachi S-3400N.

Open access
Assessment of Particular Qualities of Carrot Availalbe in Selected Retailers in Krakow

Abstract

The objective of the paper was assessment of the selected qualities of carrot from retailer's shops, organic and traditional food shops in Krakow. The following quality parameters of the fruit pulp were investigated: content of extract, sugars, polyphenols, nitrite, flavonoids, beta-carotene, colour, and antioxidant activity. The investigation shows that the content of nitrogen (V) in the samples of carrot from traditional cultivations was higher than in case of carrot from organic crops, and in case of a sample from traditional cultivation it exceeds the admissible norms. However, the research which was carried out provides no justification for the statement that the content of nitrate (III) depends on the production system of carrot. The research on the content of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of juice proved the increased antioxidant ability of carrot that was traditionally cultivated with reference to carrot cultivated organically. However, the differences were not statistically confirmed. Beta-carotene content in all samples was comparable regardless the cultivation system. Content of extracts, total carbohydrates and sucrose was significantly higher for carrot from traditional crops than for eco-carrot.

Open access
Assessment of Plant Germination Intensity with the Use of Automated System with Computer Vision Method

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to show various options of using by author an automated stand with computer image analysis for control of plant germination on the example of cauliflower Brassica oleracea L. ‘Pionier” variety. The developed system consisted of a mobile platform equipped with the acquisition and image processing system based on Raspberry PL processor. Germination of cauliflower seeds was the object of observation, which in one case were sown to soil after dressing them with plant extracts (sweet flag Acorus calamus L., great burdock roots Arctium lappa L.). In the other case, undressed seeds were sown in the place of previous application of the above-mentioned extracts. The use of a robot for monitoring plant germination enabled the automated analysis of the investigated material with higher frequency than it has been possible so far. Simultaneously, higher germination was reported when seeds were treated with macerates and extracts from great burdock roots.

Open access
Assessment of Sowing Quality of Radish Seeds with Working Unit of Pneumatic Seeder

Abstract

The objective of the research was assessment of the sowing quality of radish seeds with the sowing unit of “MAX PNEUAMTIC” S 156 pneumatic seeder. Tests were carried out on the original laboratory stand. They proved that at the assumed range of the working speed within 2.5 to 4.0 km·h−1 and rotations of the sowing disc between 23 and 37 rot·min−1, the most favourable results concerning precision of seeds spacing in a row were obtained at the speed between 2.5 and 3.0 km·h−1. The increase of the speed above 3.0 km·h−1 caused deterioration of the seeds sowing quality through statistically significant reduction of the single sowing participation and the increase of the empty sowings participation.

Open access
Effects of Glycerol and Diameter of Holes in Breaker Plate on Performance of Screw Mixer for Nanocomposites

Abstract

A breaker plate of a screw mixer is an efficient mixing device for use in homogenizing nanocomposites. This research was undertaken to investigate the effects of glycerol and diameter of holes in a breaker plate on performance of a screw mixer for nanocomposites. Samples of the nanocomposites were formulated by blending 1000 g cassava starch, 45-55% glycerol and 2% magnetite nanoparticles; and used to evaluate the performance of a locally developed screw mixer at 5 mm and 7 mm diameters of holes in its breaker plate. The effects of glycerol and diameter of holes in the breaker plate on mixing index, amount of unmixed nanocomposites and output/1000g were evaluated as performance indices for 1 hour. Empirical models were determined for predicting the performance of the mixer within the designed criteria. The results showed that the output/1000g and the mixing index increased with higher glycerol and diameter of holes in the breaker plate. However, the amount of unmixed nanocomposites decreases with a higher diameter of holes in the breaker plate (p<0.05). The maximum output/1000g and mixing index lies between 5 mm diameter of holes in the breaker plate and 55% glycerol concentration with an approximate desirability of 0.60. The empirical models developed were fit (R2=0.89, p<0.05); and there were no significant differences between actual and predicted values. The results suggest application of 5 mm diameter of holes in the breaker plate for homogenizing nanocomposites for optimum performance.

Open access
Energy Input on Cover Crop Cultivation

Abstract

The research was carried out in 2015-2016 at the Research Station Brody belonging to Poznan University of Life Sciences. The experiment was assumed with blocks randomized in four replications. The aim of the study was to determine the size and structure of energy inputs incurred on cover crops cultivation in different soil tillage systems. The cumulative energy consumption methodology was used to analyse the energy expenditure on field pea and white mustard seed. Based on the research, it was found that sowing field pea as a cover crop as compared to white mustard increased the cumulative energy input by 63.2%. Applied sowing technologies, regardless of cover crop species, reduced cumulative energy use by 22.5% (strip tillage) and direct sowing by 40.7% as compared to traditional tillage. The structure of energy input depended on the type of used cover crop species, which was based on the energy value of the seed used. The value of the energy efficiency index for growing both cover crop species increased with the simplification of the tillage.

Open access