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Customer satisfaction under heterogeneous services of different self-service technologies

Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the customer satisfaction of different self-service technologies (SST) when different SSTs provide various services. This study compares overall customer satisfaction according to the four types of SSTs (Mobile Channel SST, ATM SST, Telephone SST and online SST) when SSTs provide heterogeneous services. We used both primary and secondary data. Primary data consisted of a survey questionnaire applied to a final sample size of 400 people. Data analysis was performed via ordered logistic regression. The results showed that customer satisfaction on different SSTs for different services positively associate with overall customer satisfaction in the banking sector, and this study finds customer satisfaction of mobile banking (MB) more positively associate than other SSTs with customer satisfaction. This study conducted on one profit-making organization (bank) of Bangladesh. Therefore, the geographic bases of SST contexts limit the extension of our findings. Future investigation is needed for evaluating the customer satisfaction on non-profit organizations and educational sector. Understanding what factors determine customer’s satisfaction in the different services provided by each SSTs contribute to manage and coordinate multiple services delivered by various SSTs and to know the process of improving the customer satisfaction across the services offered. Previous investigations were focusing on the customer satisfaction when provided services and/or SSTs are homogeneous, but this study examines the customer satisfaction when both services and SSTs are heterogeneous. This study significantly impacts both the management and research of developing operations strategies for organizations.

Open access
Disruptive Innovation in Automotive Retailing

Abstract

Purpose: The paper explores the paradigm shift occurring in the automotive retailing industry since the advent of technological innovations and different solutions in mobility. Existing studies and literature focus on the specific aspects of this changing trend, which is why this paper concentrates on the holistic changes that include various approaches to the issue of disruptive innovation in automotive retailing.

Methodology: To answer the research questions, the article utilizes qualitative research approach in combination with inductive-interpretive analysis. Interviews with eight top-level professionals from the automotive industry reveal three different perspectives on the subject. The study analyzes interview results with coding methodology and MaxQDA software.

Findings: The findings center on two components of research: major trends and impacts. The trends include the changing approach towards usership rather than ownership and to clustered habitation in mega cities. What is evident is the stark impact of such trends as the rising popularity of battery electric vehicles, autonomous cars, and mobility as a service on the dealership model of retailing. The impacts include the falling need and demand for personal cars, the rise of large fleet services like car subscription or lower maintenance needs that are expected to drastically reduce the importance of dealership.

Limitations: To further understand the trends in automotive retailing, future researchers should focus on local trends in specific regions. Another limitation is linked with exclusive concentration on experienced professionals as sources of data.

Open access
E-Marketing Campaign for a University. Case Study

Abstract

The subject of this work is an e-marketing campaign for a university from theoretical and practical perspective. Starting from a definition of e-marketing and the set of instruments used in e-marketing, the stages of implementation of e-marketing campaigns dedicated to entities from the sector of education will be discussed. Methodology of research for the purposes of the article covered literature studies, meta-analysis of available Internet sources and authors’ own qualitative research with the application of the methods of mystery client and case study. The object of the research is a private university and the subject of research are e-marketing activities, including identified campaigns, conducted for the university. The authors’ goal is to present an e-marketing campaign for a university in theory and practice. The purpose of the article is working out guidelines and recommendations for marketing specialists interested in efficient marketing activities on the Internet for the analyzed entities.

Open access
Financial impact analysis of going public at the Warsaw Stock Exchange: Using Fuzzy Set Theory to understand behaviours of mature companies

Abstract

In this paper, we intend to contribute evidence in regard to going public financial impact and thus motivation on a sample of mature companies that launched an IPO at the Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2005 and 2015. First, we review recent literature focusing on financial and non-financial consequences of an IPO. Next, we use fuzzy sets and fuzzy reasoning to define a “mature” company and assess financial consequences of going public. Our main conclusion is that the majority of Polish mature companies use an IPO as a channel how to raise capital and accelerate their investments and growth. This contradicts many previous empirical studies highlighting that the main motivation of mature companies to go public is to use the capital raised within an IPO to rebalance their capital structure.

Open access
Fiscal management on revenue-based or expenditure-based adjustments: an empirical evidence from EU-Countries

Abstract

An objective for each developed state remains the improvement of a suitable fiscal management system that could generate an increased level of resources. Further on, planning, distributing, allocating those resources to the proper beneficiaries, could generate an economic stabilization, suitable economic growth, decreased level of the net lending variable. The study consisted in an empirical research throughout it was developed the analysis of the impact of fiscal strategies and public expenses adjustments on economic growth and budgetary balance. Time series data from 1998 to 2018 were used on the empirical evidence over the European countries. The study developed an econometric model represented by an unbalanced panel data analysis having as independent variables: the variance of direct taxes, the dynamics of indirect taxes, the variance of budgetary balance, the variance of tax burden, the dynamics of change in net lending as percent of gross domestic product. The dependent variable was revealed throughout the variance of gross domestic product per capita. Over 588 time series observations and 28 cross-section data were taken into consideration in order to reveal if either revenue-adjustments or public-spending adjustments had a greater influence on the evolution of economic growth over the EU-Countries. The result of the econometric model exposed a positive correlation between total expenditure, budgetary balance and economic growth and a negative correlation between direct taxes, indirect taxes, tax burden and economic growth. Moreover, by generating dummy variables on the fixed effect model, it was revealed that large fiscal improvements had a less positive effect on the development of economic growth than fiscal adjustments based on medium-size consolidation.

Open access
Inequality in Economics: The Concept, Perception, Types, and Driving Forces

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to overview the research on inequalities in economics. The paper is based on mainstream and heterodox economic theories and approaches addressing inequality and its economic interdependence.

Methodology: Due to its positive and normative nature, inequality is a complex concept that eludes precise definition. The available application of mainstream and heterodox approach to study inequality and its economic interdependence allows for the identification of various components of inequality. Classifications that fall within the mainstream economics especially reveal less numerous and often even different types of inequalities compared to heterodox approaches. Moreover, what determines within-country inequality is the number of driving forces related to the factual and regulatory sphere of an economy.

Findings: This study does not exhaust the general debate over inequality in economics. The question remains about the state of research dedicated to the outcomes of inequality, for instance, perceived in its dynamic and historical perspective. Moreover, there emerges a need to overview the theoretical and empirical research dedicated to inequality in terms of not only its driving forces but also economic outcomes.

Open access
Influencers as Support for Public Relations Campaigns

Summary

The article is a collection of analyses carried out on the basis of literature on the subject and data collected with the utilization of desk research method. It also presents conclusions from surveys conducted by means of a qualitative method — IDI technique — during the Congress of Public Relations Professionals, which took place in April 2018 in Rzeszów. In the group of respondents there were representatives of public relations branch who cooperate with influencers and on top of that have rich experience in the area of PR activities conducted by means of the Internet. The goal of this article is assessment of the relationships occurring in the context of cooperation of PR specialists with influencers, as well as identifying the prospects for changes and potential trends in this area.

Among the key conclusions drawn in course of the conducted research we find the one which suggests that using influencers for communication and promotion-related activities is recognized as both a chance and threat for the public relations industry. However, the aspect of threats is particularly important, as it has a direct impact on the emerging and persisting image crises. Due to the fact that influencers enjoy a lot of freedom in their activity in combination with the faith of their clients in their professional approach, there is a risk of emergence of actions which will not just fail to satisfy the assumptions of a promotional campaign, but may also directly hit the image of a given entity.

Experts predict that using influencers for promotion will also in the nearest time be a growing trend, which will take hold among solutions used in communication with target groups.

Open access
Information needs of Trade Fair Visitors — A Survey of the Participants of Kompozyt-Expo 2018 and Fastener Poland

Summary

The article presents the results of surveys concerning the information needs of people visiting trade fairs and the conditions for satisfying these needs on the example of the participants of KOMPOZYT-EXPO 2018 and FASTENER POLAND. The results of the surveys are preceded by an overview of literature describing the behaviours of people visiting trade fairs.

The surveys were conducted during the aforementioned fairs by means of a direct questionnaire. On the basis of 98 cases qualified for analysis it was concluded, among others, that visitors during fairs look mainly for information about novelties in a given branch, about the current situation of the branch. They also look for information of an educational character. Moreover, over a half of respondents declared that they don’t prepare for participation in fairs in any specific way and when they plan the sequence of visits to particular stands, they follow mainly the invitations from exhibitors (over 54%). Summing up their presence at fairs over 30% of respondents don’t use special indicators of assessment.

The described surveys, due to small size of the sample, are preliminary in character and refer to a narrow branch represented by respondents, that’s why verification based on a bigger group of respondents and representatives of other branches is required.

Open access
International Startups from Poland: Born Global or Born Regional?

Abstract

Purpose: The article discusses the pace of internationalization by empirically verifying the speed of internationalization of Polish international firms and identifying which pattern is more frequently used by international startups from Poland: born global or born regional.

Methodology: The article employs a quantitative approach. It builds on a sample of 355 international businesses from Poland (CATI survey).

Findings: By using t test, U test, and ANOVA, the analysis showed a correlation between the company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.

Research limitations/implications: Based on prior studies from other parts of the globe, we assume that among Polish companies the number of born regionals – i.e. businesses that are international from their inception – is growing, while their activity is mainly restricted to the European Union. Among Polish international firms, there are many born global. In the studied sample (selected randomly), the share of born globals was 61.5%, and global startups 43%, which is a very high rate. The results enable to adopt a hypothesis that the number of Polish-born regionals is relatively high in comparison with the traditional path and born globals.

Originality/value: The article describes one of the first studies to (i) capture the phenomenon of born regionals in Poland and (ii) enrich empirical studies on emerging markets such as Poland.

Open access
Low risk trading algorithm based on the price cyclicality function for capital markets

Abstract

Buy cheap and sell more expensive is one of the basic ideas of trading the capital markets for hundreds of years. To apply it in practice has become difficult nowadays due to the high price volatility. The uncertainty in the price movements often leads to high-risk allocation. One main question is when the price is low enough for a low-risk entry? Once established an entry point, the second question is how long to keep the open trades in order to optimize the investment efficiency? This article will answer these questions. A general trading algorithm based on the price cyclical behavior will be revealed. The mathematical model is developed using the Price Cyclicality Function combined with other computational techniques in order to establish low-risk intervals. The algorithm will use multiple entry points in order to catch the best price opportunities. A simple empirical exit algorithm will be optimized in order to maximize the profit for a certain capital exposure level. The presented model uses a low number of functional parameters which can be optimized with a reasonable computational effort for any financial market. Trading results obtained for several markets will also be included in this paper in order to reveal the efficiency of the presented methodology. It was found that the Low-Risk Trading Algorithm can be used with good results for algorithmic trading in any financial market. With the right parameters set, this methodology can be wide range applied in the stock markets, currency and cryptocurrency markets, commodities and raw materials markets and even for the real estate investments. The simplicity of the presented model and the good efficiency level obtained will recommend it. This methodology can be used by any investor in order to manage the investment plan with multiple capital markets.

Open access