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Open access

Tibor Balga, Branislav Antala and Lenka Sabová

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research focused on the attitudes of schoolgirls at the 5th and 9th grade of primary schools towards physical and sport education. The aim of this project was to find out the level of the attitudes of schoolgirls at primary schools in the Bratislava Region. The research sample consisted of 247 schoolgirls attending urban and village primary schools. The basic research tool we have used was the standardized attitudinal questionnaire designed for the primary schools pupils. We have found out that in the 5th and 9th grade of primary schools the positive attitudes toward physical and sport education prevail over the indifferent attitudes. At primary schools in the Bratislava Region, the schoolgirls in the 5th grade showed more positive attitudes than schoolgirls in the 9th grade.

Open access

Jana Kovárová, Dušan Hamar, Milan Sedliak, Ján Cvečka, Peter Schickhofer and Ľubica Böhmerová

Abstract

The study examines the acute response of bone turnover markers to two different single bouts of resistance exercises in women. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and sclerostin concentration were measured before, 24 and 48 hours after the interventions to detect the dynamics of bone turnover. Subjects performed two exercises and a control experiment without exercise (CONTR) on different occasions, with 3-week breaks between the interventions, in a random order. First exercises protocol had a constant resistance of 75 % 1 RM (ISOF). Second, serial stretch loading (SSL), was isokinetic: velocity of concentric and eccentric phase of the movement was 50 and 40 cm/s, respectively. Short stops were incorporated into both phases of the movement after every 20 mm, resulting in a frequency of the force peaks of 10 Hz in concentric as well as in eccentric phase. Both protocols consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions and 2-minute resting periods. The exercises interventions had no statistically significant effect on either bone turnover marker concentration at any of the time points.

Open access

Zbigniew Obmiński, Artur Litwiniuk, Lech Borkowski, Maria Ładyga and Beata Szczepańska

Abstract

To date, there is only one published study with the use standardized ergometry exercise tests regarding effect of long lasting training period on a change of physical fitness among international level male and female speed skaters (van Ingen Schenau JG, 1992). This study showed high level initial performance and lack of its improvements despite trainings. That phenomenon might be resulted in inadequate training modalities, accumulation of fatigue or simply such high initial fitness, that it was impossible to improve it. Our study was aimed to examine the responses of several biomechanical and physiological parameters to preparatory training period (4 months) with incising predominance of strength-velocity exercises over time course. The results showed minor, non-significant improvements of some parameters of anaerobic and aerobic capacity in the males. In females there was no change in aerobic capacity, and those in anaerobic one were lower than in males. After the period in both sexes resting blood cortisol was elevated and testosterone- to- cortisol ratio, was declined, that suggest shift of protein metabolism toward catabolism. We suspect that among females their adverse hormonal status may have been responsible for, general lower expected training effects.

Open access

Aleksandra Čuprika, Andra Fernāte and Leonīds Čupriks

Abstract

Nowadays sedentary lifestyle is becoming more and more frequent all over the world. Obesity represents one of the most serious health issues (Hill et al., 2008). It develops because of misbalance between energy intake and consumption, which results from human behavior – feeding behavior, leisure time spent physiology and life quality objective factors (Haslam & James, 2005). The aim of the research is to describe women’s involved in fitness relation of body composition parameters and subjective evaluation of the amount of physical activities and objective parameters of life quality. Research methods: the study included 51 women (27 +/- 6 years old). TANITA BC-545 platform was applied to evaluate body composition parameters and IPAQ short version was used to state the amount of physical activities. SPSS ver.17.0 data procession program was applied to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mode, mean); mathematical statistics (One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Spearman rank correlation) was made. Results: the research showed that there is a number of weak significant correlations between women’s in fitness body composition parameters, the amount of physical activities, the habits of spending leisure and the life quality objective factors (0.2<|rs|<0.49; p< 0.05). Whereas there were noted strong (0.7<|rs|<0.99; p<0.01) and moderate (0.5<|rs|<0.69; p<0.01) correlations among body composition parameters. Conclusions: Women’s, involved in fitness physical activities, life quality objective factors and the habits of spending leisure have the impact on the body composition parameters.

Open access

Ieva Kundziņa and Juris Grants

Abstract

Physical activity plays a fundamental role not only in improving the physical health, but also in increasing the well-being (Biddle, Mutrie, 2002, 2007). The aim of the study was to discover how the natural means for outdoor recreation (biking, Nordic walking, cross-country skiing) influence the positive and negative emotions of the 45-55 year-old people. Methods of research: “FaceReader 3.0” (testing positive and negative emotions), pulsometry, case study, analysis of qualitative data and mathematical - statistical methods of data processing. The obtained results after carrying out recreational activities indicate a tendency to increase. The most significant increase in the percentage of positive emotions was observed in those participants who performed a ride on a bike – increase in emotion of joy +266.4%, increase in emotion of surprise +140.6% and decrease in negative emotions – sadness -41.0%; anger -56.3%; disgust -71.2% (p> 0.05). Nordic walking, increases the level of joy by +121.0%, surprise level by +13.4% (p>0.05). An increase in positive emotions was observed in cross-country skiers – in joy emotions + 19.3% and in surprise emotions + 2.9% (p> 0.05). Analyzing the FR negative emotions data, a decrease was observed – in sadness -24.7% and in anger – 21.7% (p> 0.05). Physical Recreation – cycling, Nordic walking and cross-country skiing outdoors, with applied load of 50 minutes with intensity of 65 – 70% of maximum heart rate, improves the positive emotions.

Open access

Robert Podstawski, Stefan Mańkowski and Marek Raczkowski

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study is to assess strength and endurance-strength abilities of selected female early education teachers (EET) against classification norms, and subsequently compare the level of these abilities to that of pre-school and early school children and female university students.

Methods: The research comprised: 700 pre-school children, 1306 early school children, 303 female university students and 217 EET. In order to determine the research participants’ level of motor abilities, two motor tests, i.e. the medicine ball forward throw and the 3-min. Burpee Test were applied.

Results: Based on the classification norms, the EET obtained an average level of strength and endurance-strength abilities. Moreover, in the medicine ball (2 and 4kg) forward throw trial, the EET achieved significantly worse results than the 1st year female university students (p = 0.0000), yet significantly better results than the examined pre-school and early school children (p = 0.0000). On the other hand, in the 3 min. Burpee Test, the EET gained significantly worse results than the 2nd (p = 0.0000) and 3rd (p = 0.0000) year girls and boys and the 1st year female university students (p = 0.0000), but significantly better results than the pre-school children (girls: p = 0.0000, boys: p = 0.0166) and the 1st year boys (p = 0.0000).

Conclusions: Since motor fitness is important in EET’s everyday work, it is worrisome that the teachers under study attained an average level of strength and endurance – strength abilities. There were also many teachers who were exempted from any form of physical exercise for health reasons, which may be a consequence of their poor eating habits or/and an insufficient amount of daily physical activity. It seems to be reasonable, thus, to design and implement new enrollment criteria for admission to early education studies including fitness tests, and to expand the curriculum of early education studies by increasing the number of practical P.E. classes.

Open access

Katarzyna Rutkowska and Mirosław Zalech

Abstract

The aim of the research was to get to know the image of physical education (PE) teachers as seen by themselves and to compare it with how it is perceived by school community. The study included 148 teachers and 171 final-year students from upper-secondary schools. As a result of purposive sampling and random-purposive sampling, three groups were distinguished. The groups included PE teachers (n=22), teachers of other subjects (n=22) and students (n=22). The data were gathered using ACL-37 (Adjective Check List) developed by G. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun. The findings revealed a number of significant differences between how PE teachers perceive themselves and how they are seen by their students and colleagues (teachers of other subjects). It turned out that PE teachers perceive themselves in a more positive manner than the other groups.

Open access

Ali Aziz Dawood Al Sudani and Kamila Budzyńska

Abstract

This article presents an application of attachment theory in understanding the quality of sport relationships, it describes types of motivational climate and the differences between performance and mastery in the family and also shows how the beliefs of parents can influence the beliefs of a young athlete. The high quality and positive relationships between athletes and their colleagues seems to reflect the early positive bond which they had with their parents. Children with insecure attachment styles more often have low quality relationships with teammates. Other factors important in the functioning of athletes are the two main types of motivational climate: the mastery/task climate and the performance/ego climate. Both kinds of motivational climate describe which values are the most important for parents and the different influence they have on athletes. Moreover the beliefs of parents have a big impact on the involvement in sport by children, their behaviour during and after sport competitions and what they think about their motor skills and abilities. Parents who care about the sport future of their children should be educated in how important it is to build positive relationships from early childhood, how their beliefs and values create a motivational climate which can support or harm an athletes participation in sport, and how their beliefs influence the involvement in sport of their children.

Open access

Gunnar Elling Mathisen

Abstract

Acceleration, sprint and agility performance are crucial in sports like soccer. There are few studies regarding the effect of training on youth soccer players in agility performance and in sprint distances shorter than 30 meter. Therefore, the aim of the recent study was to examine the effect of a high-intensity sprint and plyometric training program on 13-year-old male soccer players. A training group of 14 adolescent male soccer players, mean age (±SD) 13.5 years (±0.24) followed an eight week intervention program for one hour per week, and a group of 12 adolescent male soccer players of corresponding age, mean age 13.5 years (±0.23) served as control a group. Pre- and post-tests assessed 10-m linear sprint, 20-m linear sprint and agility performance. Results showed a significant improvement in agility performance, pre 8.23 s (±0.34) to post 7.69 s (± 0.34) (p<0.01), and a significant improvement in 0-20m linear sprint, pre 3.54s (±0.17) to post 3.42s (±0.18) (p<0.05). In 0-10m sprint the participants also showed an improvement, pre 2.02s (±0.11) to post 1.96s (± 0.11), however this was not significant. The correlation between 10-m sprint and agility was r = 0.53 (p<0.01), and between 20-m linear sprint and agility performance, r = 0.67 (p<0.01). The major finding in the study is the significant improvement in agility performance and in 0-20 m linear sprint in the intervention group. These findings suggest that organizing the training sessions with short-burst high-intensity sprint and plyometric exercises interspersed with adequate recovery time, may result in improvements in both agility and in linear sprint performance in adolescent male soccer players. Another finding is the correlation between linear sprint and agility performance, indicating a difference when compared to adults.