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Open access

Guoxiu Lu

Abstract

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response caused by infection and a critical illness in pediatrics. This disease is the leading cause of death in infants and children worldwide. An early, appropriate, and adequate anti-infective treatment can effectively prevent disease progression and improve the survival rate of children. However, antimicrobial drug abuse, increased drug-resistant bacteria, and lack of epidemiological data have hampered the effective and rational anti-infective treatment of patients with sepsis and enhancement of the success rate of rescue, especially for children. This article briefly reviews the recent advances in anti-infective treatment for sepsis in children at home and abroad based on sepsis definition, pathogen distribution and drug resistance, infection source control, and rational anti-infection. The results provide a foundation for clinical treatment of sepsis.

Open access

Li Han

Abstract

The harms of seasonal flu and global pandemic influenza have generally attracted attention. However, the currently administered influenza drugs and flu vaccines have certain limitations. Since the discovery of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) and its mediated RNA interference process, this molecule has been widely used in the study of anti-influenza viral infections because of its high specificity and strong selectivity. The results provided new concepts for the prevention and treatment of influenza virus. However, the siRNA still faces an enormous challenge despite extensive studies on this molecule. The research progress of siRNA in anti-influenza viral infection was reviewed in this study.

Open access

Xiaoming Gu

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to understand the pathological mechanism and therapeutic progress in the study of urinary tract infections to provide references for clinical diagnosis and identification and development of therapeutic drugs.

Methods

We summarized the types, pathological mechanisms, and therapeutic drugs for urinary tract infections on the basis of recent publications on these infections, both domestic and abroad.

Results and conclusions

Urinary tract infection is mainly caused by pathogenic bacterial infection and treated by targeting bacterial adhesion, bacterial toxin, protease, urease, and siderophores, as well as using pili as vaccines and small-molecule drugs. Vaccines that target bacterial adhesion can block well the interaction between pathogens and the body, thereby reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections. The clinical efficacy of vaccines targeting bacterial toxins and proteases needs further evaluation. Vaccines targeting iron carriers retard disease progression and attenuate bacterial colonization. Urease-targeted small-molecule drugs exhibit certain curative effects and serious side effects. Small pili-targeted drugs can prevent and treat urinary tract infections by blocking the colonization and invasion of pathogens in animal models of urinary tract infections on the bladder. Adhesive FimH antibodies have entered Phase I clinical trials. However, pilicides, mannosides, and vaccines that target pili, iron carriers, and other virulence factors are still in the experimental or preclinical stages of research.

Open access

Hua Feng

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is one of the most common human pathogens. The infection caused by this bacterium is closely related to various clinical diseases. However, the eradication rate of conventional quadruple therapy has decreased, but the recurrence rate of infections has increased. The oral cavity is another major storage of Hp in addition to the stomach, and a certain homology exists between Hp in the oral cavity and Hp in the stomach. Periodontal treatment has a certain role in the killing of oral Hp, which can increase the eradication rate and reduce the recurrence rate of Hp in the stomach. This article summarizes the influence of oral Hp on the eradication rate and recurrence rate of gastric Hp.

Open access

Tong Wang

Abstract

Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute progressive respiratory failure caused by severe infection, trauma, shock, poisoning, inhaled harmful gas, acute pancreatitis, and pathological obstetrics. ALI and ARDS demonstrate similar pathophysiological changes. The severe stage of ALI is defined as ARDS. At present, a significant progress has been achieved in the study of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Whether or not ALI/ARDS patients can recover depends on the degree of lung injury, extra-pulmonary organ damage, original primary disease of a patient, and adequacy in supportive care. Conservative infusion strategies and protective lung ventilation reduce ARDS disability and mortality. In this study, the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, lung injury, molecular mechanisms of lung repair, and conservative infusion strategies and pulmonary protective ventilation are reviewed comprehensively.

Open access

Ewelina Kowalczyk and Krzysztof Kwiatek

Abstract

Introduction: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites produced by many plant species. Due to their toxicity PAs can pose a risk to human and animal health. To detect the toxic compounds in feed materials a sensitive method based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been developed.

Material and Methods: PAs were extracted with sulphuric acid and purified with cation exchange cartridges. A newly developed solvent mixture consisting of ethyl acetate, methanol, acetonitrile, ammonia, and triethylamine was used to wash alkaloids from the cartridges. After evaporation the residues were reconstituted in water and methanol mixture and subjected to LC-MS analysis.

Results: The developed method was validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. The recovery was from 84.1% to 112.9%, the repeatability ranged from 3.0% to 13.6%, and the reproducibility was from 4.8% to 18.9%.

Conclusions: A sensitive and selective method for determination of PAs in feed materials has been developed and validated. All evaluated validation parameters were in accordance with EU Reference Laboratories document no. SANTE/11945/2015. Almost 41% of the analysed feed samples were positive for the presence of at least one PA.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Severe spinal cord injuries (SCI), causing physical handicaps and accompanied by many serious complications, remains one of the most challenging problems in both, human and veterinary health care practices. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficits in a dog following SCI persists for the rest of its life and the affected animals display an image of permanent suffering. Diagnostics are based on: neurological examination, plain x-rays of vertebral column, x-rays of the vertebral column following intrathecal administration of a water-soluble contrast medium (myelography), x-rays of the vertebral column following epidural administration of a contrast medium (epidurography), computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, only limited therapeutic measures are available for the dogs with SCIs. They include: the administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) during the acute stage; early spinal cord decompression; stabilisation of vertebral fractures or luxations; prevention and treatment of complications, and expert rehabilitation. Together with the progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic events occurring after SCI, different therapeutic strategies have been instituted, including the local delivery of MPSS, the utilisation of novel pharmacological agents, hypothermia, and stem/precursor cell transplantation have all been tested in the experimental models and preclinical trials with promising results. The aim of this review is the presentation of the generally accepted methods of diagnostics and management of dogs with SCIs, as well as to discuss new therapeutic modalities. The research strategy involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from January 2001 to December 2017 using the term “spinal cord injury”, in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) in dogs are not frequent, but they are serious pathological conditions accompanied with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of SCI involves a primary insult, disrupting axons, blood vessels, and cell membranes by mechanical force, or causes tissue necrosis by ischemia and reperfusion. The primary injury is followed by a cascade of secondary events, involving vascular dysfunction, edema formation, continuing ischemia, excitotoxicity, electrolyte shifts, free radical production, inflammation, and delayed apoptotic cell death. The most frequent cause of SCI in dogs is an acute intervertebral disc extrusion, exogenous trauma or ischemia. Neurological symptomatology depends on the location, size and the type of spinal cord lesions. It is characterized by transient or permanent, incomplete or complete loss of motor, sensory, autonomic, and reflex functions caudal to the site of the lesion. In a case of partial spinal cord (SC) damage, one of the typical syndromes develops (e. g. Brown-Séquard syndrome, central SC syndrome, ventral SC syndrome, dorsal SC syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, or traumatic cauda equina syndrome). The severe transversal spinal cord lesion in the cervical region causes paresis or plegia of all four extremities (tetraparesis, tetraplegia); in thoracic or lumbosacral region, paresis or plegia of the pelvic extremities (paraparesis, paraplegia), i. e. sensory-motor deficit, urinary and foecal incontinence and sexual incompetence. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficit in dogs following severe SCI persists for the rest of their lives and animals display an image of permanent suffering. The research strategy presented here involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from Januray 2001 to December 2017 using the term “canine spinal cord injury” in the English language; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

Open access

C. O. Aiki-Raji, A. I. Adebiyi and D. O. Oluwayelu

Abstract

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as one of the most important agents of reproductive disorders in gilts and sows worldwide. It is associated with considerable economic losses in the swine industry due to the unthriftiness, and variable morbidity and mortality it causes in pigs. In spite of the devastation caused by this virus to the global pig industry, there is little or no report of its occurrence in Nigeria. Hence, a slaughterhouse based survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of PCV2 infections in pigs in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Using a commercial ELISA kit, 364 pig sera collected from a major abattoir were screened for IgG antibodies against PCV2. The overall prevalence of anti-PCV2 antibodies in the pigs was 1.4 % (5/364), with more female pigs (4/237, 1.7 %) being seropositive than males (1/127, 0.8 %). Since there is no routine vaccination against this swine disease in Nigeria, thus the antibodies detected in the pig sera indicated a natural exposure to the virus. The absence of clinical disease in the pigs also suggests the possibility of a carrier status for these animals and shows that they could serve as hosts for the perpetuation of the disease. These findings underscore the need for continuous surveillance for PCV2 among pigs in Nigeria in order to determine its contribution to production losses incurred in the Nigerian swine industry and aid the development of prevention and control strategies against the disease.

Open access

Ewelina Kowalczyk and Krzysztof Kwiatek

Abstract

Introduction: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are probably the most widespread toxins of natural origin. More than 6,000 plant species produce these toxic compounds. Bees can forage on flowers of plants producing PAs, which leads to contamination of honey with the toxic compounds. To determine the contamination of honey with PAs, a sensitive method based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been developed.

Material and Methods: PAs were extracted with 0.05 M sulphuric acid and purified with MCX cartridges. A solvent mixture consisting of ethyl acetate, methanol, acetonitrile, ammonia, and triethylamine (8:1:1:0.1:0.1, v/v) was used to wash alkaloids from the cartridges. After evaporation the residues were reconstituted in water and methanol mixture and subjected to LC–MS analysis.

Results: The developed method was validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 requirements. The recovery was from 80.6% to 114.5%. The repeatability ranged from 2.3% to 14.6%, and the reproducibility was from 4.9% to 17.7%.

Conclusions: A new method for the determination of PAs in honey has been developed and validated. All evaluated parameters were in accordance with the SANTE/11945/2015 guidance document. Out of 50 analysed honey samples, 16 (32%) were positive for the content of at least one PA.