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Open access

D. Marcinčáková, N. Červeňáková and M. Miłek

Abstract

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) of the Asteraceae family is known for its pharmacological effects and has been used in therapy for centuries. Currently extracts of all parts of this plant are used — root, leaves and flowers. The extracts are prepared using various extraction agents that may significantly affect the effectiveness and therapeutic spectrum of the extracts. The aim of this study was to use three different solvents for the preparation of the extracts from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves and flowers, namely triton X-100 (2 %), nonidet P-40 (2 %) and acetone (30 %). After extraction, the extractants were evaporated and the dried extracts were dissolved in water to obtain a series of solutions of the concentrations: 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg.ml–1. The biological effects of the extracts were investigated by means of the MTT test of cell viability. Rabbit kidney epithelial cells (RK13) exposed to the extracts for 24 and 48 hours were used as a model cell line. We observed that the acetone extract of dandelion leaves and flowers at lower concentrations caused an increase in the viability of the treated cells in comparison with the control cells which were not exposed to the extracts (P < 0.05). At the same time, we observed a significant effect of the solvent used for the preparation of the dry extracts on the viability of the cells. The residues of the extractants caused a decrease in the cell viability almost to zero, which in fact means the death of the cells. The selection of the correct extractant for the preparation of the extracts is essential regarding the use of extracts in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.

Open access

E. Marettová and M. Maretta

Abstract

The bovine mammary gland is a special gland characterized by high secretory activity. During lactation the cellular and fibrous components of the interstitial tissue septa are exposed to store accumulated secretory products. The aim of this study was to find and study the cells in the stroma of the bovine lactating mammary gland. For this purpose, the immunohistochemical methods and antibodies against the smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin were used. The myoepithelial cells (MEC) which stained with smooth muscle actin (SMA), were found supporting the secretory units and the intralobular ducts. Coexpression of the SMA and desmin were found in the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. The fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and free cells positive to vimentin were located in the connective tissue septa. The results of this study on the mammary glands indicated that smooth muscle cells (SMC) were altered in the lactating mammary gland, with additional cells such as fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) participated in the storage and after milk let-down they allowed the mammary glands to return to their original state.

Open access

Hadi Eftekhari, Alireza Jahandideh, Ahmad Asghari, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh and Saeed Hesaraki

Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, the use of bone scaffolds as bone tissue substitutes, especially the use of such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, has been very popular. Today, the use of modern engineering techniques and advances in nanotechnology have expanded the use of nanomaterials as bone scaffolds for bone tissue applications.

Material and Methods: This study was performed on 60 adult male New Zealand rabbits divided into four experimental groups: the control group without any treatment, the second group receiving hydroxyapatite, the third group treated with β-tricalcium phosphate, and the fourth group receiving nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. In a surgical procedure, a defect 6 mm in diameter was made in a hind limb femur. Four indexes were used to assess histopathology, which were union index, spongiosa index, cortex index, and bone marrow.

Results: The results showed that nanocomposite PCL and control groups always had the respective highest and lowest values among all the groups at all time intervals. The histopathological assessment demonstrated that the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the nanocomposite PCL group was higher than in other groups.

Conclusion: All these data suggest that PCL had positive effects on the bone healing process, which could have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical applications.

Open access

Bekir Oguz, Nalan Ozdal and M. Serdar Deger

Abstract

Introduction: Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are roundworms of dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the infection caused by these ascarids in cats and dogs, using microscopic and molecular analysis methods.

Material and Methods: Adult ascarids were gathered from the faeces of dogs and cats in Van province, in 2015–2016. Existing keys and PCR sequencing of the ITS-2 fragment were used to identify the morphological features of the parasite species.

Results: It was observed that out of 20 adult ascarids, 17 and 3 were found to be Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. The ITS-2 gene region was amplified by PCR to perform molecular analysis. Genotyping indicated that the dogs and cats were infected with T. canis and T. cati, respectively, and none had Toxascaris leonina.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characteristics of adult ascaridoid nematodes from cats and dogs in Turkey. The molecular approaches established in this study enable molecular identification and genetic structure studies of the ascaridoids.

Open access

Ramazan Yildiz, Mahmut Ok, Merve Ider, Ugur Aydogdu, Amir Naseri, Kurtulus Parlak and Erdem Gulersoy

Abstract

Introduction: Intestinal obstruction such as atresia coli causes pathophysiological changes in gastrointestinal tissue due to the rise of intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the intestinal damage with intestinal biomarkers in calves with atresia coli.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 Holstein calves diagnosed with atresia coli with mild to moderate abdominal distention and 10 healthy Holstein calves which served as the control. Blood samples were collected from all calves, and then serum concentrations of intestinal biomarkers were estimated, namely intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), using commercially available specific bovine ELISA kits. An automatic blood gas analyser was employed for determining the lactate concentration.

Results: The concentrations of serum LFABP (P < 0.01), IFABP, TFF3, IAP, and blood lactate (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in calves with atresia coli than in healthy calves.

Conclusion: The calves affected with atresia coli exhibited severe intestinal damage, and IFABP, LFABP, and TFF3 have significant diagnostic importance and play a useful role in determining the intestinal damage due to intestinal obstruction. High levels of IAP and lactate may serve as a signal for the development of intestinal injury.

Open access

Marcin Gołyński, Piotr Dębiak, Magdalena Gołyńska, Ewa Myśliwiec, Piotr Szkodziak, Grzegorz Kalisz, Anna Śmiech, Krzysztof Lutnicki and Marcin Szczepanik

Abstract

Introduction: Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism is a clinical problem in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in people and animals and is an example of metabolic disease that can lead to fertility disorders and can give elastographic testicular changes.

Material and Methods: Ultrasound elastography using the Esaote MyLab Twice ultrasound system and a morphological examination of testes were performed in seven methimazole-administered (group E) and seven healthy rats (group C).

Results: The elasticity ratio of strains in the scrotal wall of the near-field test area to testicular tissue (ELX-T-RAT) and hardness percentage of strained tissues in the defined area of a testicle (ELX-T%HRD) in group E were statistically significantly lower than in group C. The degree of spermatogenesis was statistically significantly higher in group E than in group C and similarly seminiferous tubule diameters in group E were statistically significantly higher than in group C. Body weight and testicular weight in group E were statistically significantly lower than in group C.

Conclusion: Changes in the elastographical parameters of testes may result from disorders secondary to hypothyroidism. The usefulness of elastography is noteworthy in the case of evaluation of testis function in patients with some metabolic disorders.

Open access

P. Mudroň

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tetracycline administration on the frequency of ruminal contractions and serum calcium concentrations. Rumen contractions were monitored by auscultation in 23 sheep prior to the administration of oxytetracycline and recorded every 12 hours for 84 hours after the intramuscular injection of the antibiotic. The blood for calcium analyses was collected by venipuncture of the jugular vein before and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the administration of oxytetracycline. The serum calcium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse the time effect of tetracycline treatment on the rumen contractions and serum calcium concentrations. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in ruminal contractions following the application of oxytetracycline, with a maximum decrease at 24 hours following oxytetracycline application and a return to the initial rumen contraction frequency by 60—72 hours following the oxytetracycline application. The oxytetracycline administration resulted in a serum calcium decrease from 2.42 mmol.l–1 to 2.26 mmol.l–1 24 hours after the administration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the administration of tetracycline in sheep can be associated with a decline in ruminal motility potentially causing production losses, particularly in lactating ewes. Despite the resulting transient production decreases, oxytetracycline remains the antibiotic drug of choice for the treatment of bacterial infections in small ruminants, including foot rot especially.

Open access

Youbao Zhong, Xianlai Zhang, Xiaofen Hu and Yong Li

Abstract

Introduction: The study was designed to investigate the effects of repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on growth performance, lymphoid organ indexes, and blood cells in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Material and Methods: Forty healthy weaned Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly equally divided into LPS and control groups. Each rat in the LPS group was injected via the caudal vein with LPS (100 μg/kg b.w.) for 10 days, and the control group was treated with an equal volume of normal saline. On the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 10th days, growth performance, lymphoid organ indexes, and blood cells were evaluated in five necropsied rats.

Results: When rats were treated 3–10 times with LPS, their body weight and average daily gains increased more slowly than in the control group (P < 0.05). Repeated LPS treatment significantly increased spleen weight and the ratio of spleen to body weight (P < 0.05). White blood cells, neutrophils, and neutrophil percentage increased (P < 0.05) remarkably, but lymphocyte percentage, haemoglobin, and blood platelet counts decreased significantly (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: LPS treatment obviously suppresses growth and promotes peripheral immune organ proliferation. It is indicated that host protective mechanism can be activated by multiple small doses of LPS and prevents organs from further damage during stress status.

Open access

Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak, Jarosław Rachubik, Katarzyna Śliżewska and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementation of sows’ and growing pigs’ diets with three newly developed synbiotic and two extant commercial probiotic products on selected immune parameters under field conditions.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on 30 sows and 48 piglets of the Danbred breed. Immune parameters such as concentration and proportion of white blood cells and their subpopulations, immunoglobulins amount in serum, and serum concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were recorded with the use of a haematology analyser and ELISA kits.

Results: No significant differences between treatment groups and controls were found with regard to the immune parameters evaluated except for serum immunoglobulin concentration, which was significantly increased by synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D.

Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D are worthy of further investigation as promising candidates to improve the immune status of healthy sows and their offspring.

Open access

Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Marta Likus and Łukasz Gątkiewicz

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to observe TNF-α serum concentration as well as changes in respiration rate, body temperature, and pulse rate in burn victims during 84 h post burn.

Material and Methods: A total of 30 healthy pigs were divided into two groups: A, the test group and N, the control group. The experimental group suffered burns to 30% of the body surface, and after infliction of the burns both groups were closely monitored.

Results: The biggest increase in TNF-α serum concentration in the test subjects occurred around the 6th h of the study, and the second biggest increase took place between 12th and 36th h. In the 36th h, TNF-α was 2.5 times more concentrated in serum in the test group than in the control group. In the test group, the biggest increase in respiration rate occurred up to the 6th h post burn, on average up to 29/min. In the 12th h post burn, the mean pulse rate in the test group was 133/min and dropped to the lowest value in the 72nd h of the experiment. A gradual increase in body temperature up to 41.72°C was observed up to the 30th h post burn and decreased to a significant value of 40.74°C by the 84th h of the study.

Conclusion: In a period of a pronounced rise in TNF-α serum concentration, this parameter, pulse rate, and respiration rate are highly correlated and are also influenced by multiple inflammation forming factors.