Bill Mahaney, Kurt Langworthy and Robert Fischer
Tomáš Mikuš, Julian Kondela, Stanislav Jacko and Stanislava Milovská
The article presents the first description of a complete and continuous series from berthierite to garavellite sulphosalts in the Western Carpathians. Berthierite is a common main or accessory phase of Sb mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, and occurs at many localities and ore deposits as well. On the other side, garavellite or Bi-rich berthierite is a relatively rare accessory phase. The highest Bi content in garavellite reaches up to 38.04 wt. % which represents 0.90 apfu, and its crystallochemical formula can be written as Fe0.97Sb1.07Bi0.90S3.98. Raman band shifts were observed in the isomorphic berthierite–garavellite series. Garavellite occurs in the younger stages of sulphidic mineralization, and associates with tetrahedrite, berthierite, Bi-chalcostibite, Sb-bismuthinite, Bi-stibnite, ullmanite and cinnabarite. It creates irregular grains and veinlets in pre-existing tetrahedrite, or forms myrmekite intergrowths with chalcopyrite in tetrahedrite. Bi content in chalcostibite is up to 0.20 apfu. Besides the tetrahedrite, pre-existing sulphosalts are the members of the tintinaite–kobellite series, Bi-jamesonite and bournonite. The Sb/(Sb+Bi) ratio of minerals of the tintinaite–kobellite series varies from 0.37 to 0.80. The maximum content of Bi in jamesonite is up to 1.22 apfu. A vertical zonation at the ore vein body (mining levels 6 / 180 a.s.l., 8 / 80 a.s.l., 10 / 20 b.s.l.) is represented by the Sb decrease along with the Bi increase with increasing depth. Bi content continuously decreases during the older ore mineralization stage and Sb increases at the younger mineralization stage. Both of the stages have been enriched by Sb as well.
William C. Mahaney, llen West, Alison Milan, David H. Krinsley, Peeter Somelar, Stephane Schwartz, Michael W. Milner and Christopher C. R. Allen
Although much has been written about a cosmic impact event in the Western Alps of the Mt. Viso area, the event closely tied with the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) of 12.8 ka and onset of the Younger Dryas (YD), the affected land surface is considered to contain a similar black mat suite of sediment found on three continents. While work elsewhere has focused on recovered sediment from lake and ice cores, buried lacustrine/alluvial records, and surface glacial and paraglacial records, no one has traced a mountain morphosequence of deposits with the objective of investigating initial weathering/ soil morphogenesis that occurred in ice recessional deposits up to the YDB when the surface was subjected to intense heat, presumably, as hypothesized by Mahaney et al. (2016a) from a cosmic airburst. With the land surface rapidly free of ice following glacial retreat during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, weathering processes ~13.5 to 12.8 ka led to weathering and soil morphogenesis in a slow progression as the land surface became free of ice. To determine the exposed land character in the mid- to late-Allerød, it is possible to utilize an inverted stratigraphic soil morphogenesis working backward in time, from known post-Little Ice Age (LIA) (i.e. time-zero) through LIA (~0.45 to ~0.10 ka), to at least the middle Neoglacial (~2 ka), to answer several questions. What were the likely soil profile states in existence at the end of the Allerød just prior to the cosmic impact/airburst (YDB)? Assuming these immature weathered regolith sections of the Late Allerød approximated the <1 ka old profiles seen today, and assuming the land surface was subjected to a hypothesized instant temperature burst from ambient to ~2200°C at ~12.8 ka, what would be the expected effect on the resident sediment? To test the mid-LG (YDB) to YD relationship we analyzed the paleosols in both suites of deposits - mid-LG to YD - to test that the airburst grains are restricted to Late Allerød paleosols and using relative-age-determination criteria, that the overlapping YD to mid-LG moraines are closely related in time. These are some of the questions about the black mat that we seek to answer with reference to sites in the upper Guil and Po rivers of the Mt. Viso area.
Ivana Carević, Morteza Taherpour-Khalil-Abad, Monika Mirković, Velimir Jovanović, Elham Mojtahedin and Dragana Vušković
The occurrence of microfossil assemblage represented by calpionellids in close association with benthic foraminifera and encrusting Crescentiella morronensis is reported for the first time from the Upper Tithonian of NE Serbia. The biostratigraphic and sedimentological investigations were carried out on a 250 m thick carbonate succession in Jelenska Stena quarry cropping out along the Danube River Gorge in the border area of Serbian Carpatho–Balkanides and Romanian Southern Carphatians. On the basis of determined benthic foraminiferal taxa Textularia sp. cf. T. bettenstaedti and Everticyclammina praekelleri in the lower part of the succession and calpionellid association dominated by the representatives of calpionellid genera Tintinnopsella, Crassicollaria and Calpionella the carbonate succession is assigned to the Upper Tithonian. The scarcity of calpionellid zonal species prevents the nominal zones being recognized. Petrographic analysis of thin-sections led to the recognition of three basin microfacies types: bioclastic wackestone, bioclastic peloidal wackestone/packstone and mudstone. These microfacies characterize the SMF 3 and SMF 4 which indicate deposition in slope and toe-of-slope environments. This study extends the palaeogeographical distribution of Upper Tithonian calpionellids along the northern Tethyan margins. The investigated carbonate succession is compared with coeval strata from other northern Tethyan regions.
Martin Ondrejka, Xian-Hua Li, Rastislav Vojtko, Marian Putis, Pavel Uher and Tomas Sobocký
Three representative A-type rhyolitic rock samples from the Muráň Nappe of the inferred Silicic Unit of the Inner Western Carpathians (Slovakia) were dated using the high-precision SIMS U–Pb isotope technique on zircons. The geochronological data presented in this paper is the first in-situ isotopic dating of these volcanic rocks. Oscillatory zoned zircon crystals mostly revealed concordant Permian (Guadalupian) ages: 266.6 ± 2.4 Ma in Tisovec-Rejkovo (TIS-1), 263.3 ± 1.9 Ma in Telgárt-Gregová Hill (TEL-1) and 269.5 ± 1.8 Ma in Veľká Stožka-Dudlavka (SD-2) rhyolites. The results indicate that the formation of A-type rhyolites and their plutonic equivalents are connected to magmatic activity during the Permian extensional tectonics and most likely related to the Pangea supercontinent break-up.
Milan N. Sudar, Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Galina P. Nestell, Divna Jovanović, Bogdan Jurkovšek, Jeremy Williams, Michael Brookfield and Alan Stebbins
Detail results of microfaunal, sedimentological and geochemical investigations are documented from a newly discovered section of the Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) interval in the area of the town of Valjevo (northwestern Serbia). The presence of various and abundant microfossils (conodonts, foraminifers, and ostracodes) found in the Upper Permian “Bituminous limestone” Formation enabled a determination of the Changhsingian Hindeodus praeparvus conodont Zone. This paper is the first report of latest Permian strata from the region, as well as from all of Serbia, where the PTB interval sediments have been part of a complex/integrated study by means of biostratigraphy and geochemistry.
Mathias Harzhauser, Patrick Grunert, Oleg Mandic, Petra Lukeneder, Ángela García Gallardo, Thomas A. Neubauer, Giorgio Carnevale, Bernard M. Landau, Roman Sauer and Philipp Strauss
Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bernhardsthal and Bernhardsthal-Sued oil fields documents an up to 2000 m thick succession of middle and upper Badenian deposits in this part of the northern Vienna Basin (Austria). Based on palaeontological analyses of core-samples, well-log data and seismic surveys we propose an integrated stratigraphy and describe the depositional environments. As the middle/late Badenian boundary is correlated with the Langhian/Serravallian boundary, the cores capture the crucial phase of the Middle Miocene Climate Transition. The middle Badenian starts with a major transgression leading to outer neritic to upper bathyal conditions in the northern Vienna Basin, indicated by Bathysiphon-assemblages and glass-sponges. A strong palaeo-relief and rapid synsedimentary subsidence accentuated sedimentation during this phase. The middle/late Badenian boundary coincides with a major drop of relative sea level by about 200 m, resulting in a rapid shift from deeper marine depositional environments to coastal and freshwater swamps. In coeval marine settings, a more than 100 m thick unit of anhydrite-bearing clay formed. This is the first evidence of evaporite precipitation during the Badenian Salinity Crisis in the Vienna Basin. Shallow lagoonal environments with diverse and fully marine mollusc and fish assemblages were established during the subsequent late Badenian re-flooding. In composition, the mollusc fauna differs considerably from older ones and is characterized by the sudden appearance of species with eastern Paratethyan affinities.
George Ajdanlijsky, Annette E. Götz and André Strasser
Sedimentary facies and cycles of the Triassic continental–marine transition of NW Bulgaria are documented in detail from reference sections along the Iskar river gorge between the villages of Tserovo and Opletnya. The depositional environments evolved from anastomosing and meandering river systems in the Petrohan Terrigenous Group to mixed fluvial and tidal settings in the Svidol Formation, and to peritidal and shallow-marine conditions in the Opletnya Member of the Mogila Formation. For the first time, the palynostratigraphic data presented here allow for dating the transitional interval and for the precise identification of a major sequence boundary between the Petrohan Terrigenous Group and the Svidol Formation (Iskar Carbonate Group). This boundary most probably corresponds to the major sequence boundary Ol4 occurring in the upper Olenekian of the Tethyan realm and thus enables interregional correlation. The identification of regionally traceable sequence boundaries based on biostratigraphic age control is a first step towards a more accurate stratigraphic correlation and palaeogeographic interpretation of the Early to early Middle Triassic in NW Bulgaria.
Gregory D. Price, István Főzy and András Galácz
A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian–Bathonian interval is presented from the Óbánya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is certainly less well constrained and studied than other Jurassic time slices. The Óbánya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Óbánya and Kisújbánya and provides exposures of an Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected, with Bathonian ammonites being especially valuable at this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation and thin-bedded limestones of the Óbánya Limestone Formation. These are overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites of the Fonyászó Limestone Formation. Our new data indicate a series of carbon isotope anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. In particular, analysis of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation reveals a negative carbon isotope excursion followed by positive values that occurs near the base of the section (across the Aalenian–Bajocian boundary). The origin of this carbon-isotope anomaly is interpreted to lie in significant changes to carbon fluxes potentially stemming from reduced run off, lowering the fertility of surface waters which in turn leads to lessened primary production and a negative δ13C shift. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope records from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enable us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata. Therefore, this study of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation confirms that the existing carbon isotope curves serve as a global standard for Aalenian–Bathonian δ13C variation.
Kristalina Stoykova, Vyara Idakieva, Marin Ivanov and Daniela Reháková
Calcareous nannofossil, calpionellid and ammonite occurrences have been directly constrained across the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary interval in the section of Kopanitsa, SW Bulgaria. This section reveals a continuous and expanded sedimentary record through the Upper Tithonian and Lower Berriasian, besides an excellent calcareous nannofossil and ammonite record. The topmost part of the NJT 16b and the base of NJT 17a nannofossil Subzones correspond to the ammonite Microcanthum / Transitorius Subzone. The major part of the NJT 17a Subzone equates to the Durangites spp. ammonite Zone, whereas the NJT 17b Subzone correlates to the lower part of the B. jacobi ammonite Zone. The NKT nannofossil Zone approximately corresponds to the upper part of the B. jacobi Zone and the NK-1 nannofossil Zone correlates at least to the lowest part of the T. occitanica Zone. The FOs of Nannoconus globulus minor, N. wintereri, N. kamptneri minor, N. steinmannii minor, N. kamptneri kamptneri and N. steinmannii steinmannii are confirmed as reliable bio-horizons for correlations in the Mediterranean Tethys area. The first occurrence of Nannoconus wintereri is regarded as an almost concomitant event with the first occurrence of Berriasella jacobi. We suggest it could be the most useful nannofossil proxy for approximating the base of the B. jacobi Zone. Rare, but relatively well preserved calpionellids and calcareous dinoflagellates together with microfacies analysis were used additionally for stratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental interpretations. The investigated sediments are typical for the steep slope of a steepened ramp, with accumulation of hemipelagic and gravitational deposits.