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Irisi Kasapi and Ines Nurja

Abstract

This paper attempts to shed light on the concepts of cognitive and affective image and investigate the effects of destination image on tourist loyalty, though one of the aforementioned aspects of destination image. Data was collected using the convenience sampling method. After a review of the most crucial places where foreign visitors could turn into during their stay in Tirana, there were identified a few attractive interception points. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses constructed. SPSS 20.0 statistical package was employed in this particular study for the descriptive analysis of the sample, while LISREL 9.30 was used for structural equation modelling. The results of the study showed that cognitive image had a direct and significant influence on affective image, explaining in this way the formation process of the destination image concept. Moreover, when examining the relationship between destination image and tourist loyalty it was found out that cognitive image had a direct influence on tourist loyalty. The results of the study prove to be beneficial both at an empirical and practical level. As a matter of fact, it does not only provide insightful information for tourism operators and policy-makers, but it also contributes in the body of knowledge of the country where the study takes place.

Open access

Gordana Nikolić, Nataša Branković, Bojan Lazić and Rada Rakočević

Abstract

One mechanism for evaluating educational systems for inclusion is through academic outputs of students who are taught in either segregated or inclusive setting. The goal of the research was to examine and compare the academic achievement in Mathematics of students with special education needs (SEN) in the fifth and sixth grade (11-12 years old students) in different educational settings in the Republic of Serbia. In this study, 175 students from 11 special and 7 regular schools participated in the research. Assessment results demonstrated statistically significant differences achievement for students in sixth grade in special schools compared to students with SEN in the same classes of regular schools. At fifth grade level there was no statistical difference between the students in special and regular schools. We discuss possible reasons why differences may or may not exist, including distinguishing between inclusion and integration as well as sociohistorical differences in grade levels.

Open access

Asaad Ali Karam

Abstract

The research endeavor to inspect the effectiveness of “training and development” (TD) on employee performance (EP), an outcome acquired from the examination, along these lines, could be extrapolated and connected to the training incline that exists within banks that work in Erbil Kurdistan region government (KRG). The procedure was in four banks of both sectors i.e. open and private. The outcomes were acquired by utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM-PLS) on important factors by Algorithm to measure indicators in reflective way; the R2 results 0.604 employees motivation (EM), and 0.639 (EP). The goal of the examination is to seek factors affecting employee’s performance. Therefore, the findings proposed that (TD) of employees work environment, and employee’s creativity has a most significant effect on enhancing employee’s performance. The examination reasoned that with breakdown the productivity of any association which needs to get to the efficiency per unit from the input information’s.

Open access

Emira Derbel

Abstract

Censorship today has been acquainted with the action of silencing, suppressing or even making unheard and unseen what is considered as culturally and socially unacceptable. Its omnipresent and widespread aspect made the concept touches upon all literary genres among which graphic narratives by women prove to be censorship’s target. The medium’s multimodality and ability to explore culturally, socially and religiously troubling spaces has categorized feminist graphic narratives as “soft weapons” endowed with a stylistic capacity and a system of grammar to subvert and to resist control. It is in this context that that this paper procures a theoretical definition of censorship by linking it history to that of comics and graphic narratives in order to shed light on the historical ties informing today’s conflictual relation between censorship and feminist graphic narratives. By taking the example of Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis and Linda Barry’s One! Hundred! Demons!, the study stresses the capacity of graphic narratives to elude the gaze of the censor through the adaptation of different evasive techniques.

Open access

Yves Robichaud, Jean-Charles Cachon, Abdellatif Taghzouti, Abdelouahid Assaidi and José Nicolas Barragan Codina

Abstract

This research tried to identify similarities and differences in motives between male urban entrepreneurs from Mexico and Morocco. The Mexican sample of 192 respondents was drawn from Chambers of Commerce listings in Guadalajara and Monterrey. The Moroccan sample of 222 respondents came from the Fès-Meknès region. In both countries a majority of entrepreneurs went into business by necessity and pursued monetary goals in order to secure their financial future for their families and for themselves. Larger cohorts of younger entrepreneurs were present in Mexico, where female spouses tended to be more often involved in their husband’s business and contributing more to family income, as compared to Morocco. In Mexico, a larger proportion of entrepreneurs were also expressing a very strong interest for intrinsic goals involving self-actualization, meeting challenges, while Moroccan respondents were more in search for autonomy and independence besides pursuing extrinsic or financial goals. Results generally confirm results obtained elsewhere in Africa and Latin America.

Open access

Purnendu Kumar, S. Sujeesh Kumar and Archana Dilip

Abstract

The XBRL standard was adopted by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in the year 2008 as a standard by which the banks that are regulated by the RBI submit regulatory, prudential, supervisory, and other statistical data. This study focuses on estimating the effectiveness of the adoption of the XBRL standard in the Indian banking sector. The effectiveness has been studied on the basis of the responses received on the survey conducted targeting the commercial banks of India. Two important factors, namely, ‘Effectiveness of the XBRL Data Submission’ and ‘Savings of Time and Cost’ have been considered mainly for the study. The study revealed that the overall efficiency of the reporting system in the Indian banking sector has increased to a great extent with the adoption of the XBRL standard. Although the overall effectiveness of XBRL adoption has been found to be satisfactory, there is always room for further enhancement of the system in order to achieve complete effectiveness.

Open access

Somchat Boonsri, Phadungchai Pupat and Peerawut Suwanjan

Abstract

Due to rapid change in technology, enterprises are facing a shortage of competent human resources that are suitable for their needs. The Dual Vocational Training Program, which emphasizes authentic training for enterprises, is able to develop human resources from vocational education so that their competencies are up to date competencies, to keep up with technological changes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a second order confirmatory factor analysis of occupational competencies in enterprises. The samples of this study were 804 students of the Vocational Education Certificate Program, in the field of Mechanical Technology. They were selected by using Multi-Stage Random Sampling. The instrument used was a 5 level rating scale questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that the Model of Occupational Competency in Enterprise of Dual Vocational Training Students is valid. The structural equation statistical values were: Chi-square = 896.0707, df = 514, p = .000, χ2/df = 1.47 (less than 2.0), GFI = .945, AGFI = .920, and RMSEA = .030.

Open access

Danica Unevska Andonova and Magdalena Petrovska

Abstract

Okun’s law is one of the most widely-known stylized facts in the macroeconomic literature and policy. In this paper we study several aspects of Okun’s law in Macedonia between 2004 and 2016. Aggregate indicators show a link between output and unemployment that is in line with other emerging markets and regional peers. We also find that the relationship has been somewhat weaker in recent years, which might be related to the recent job-intensive growth in the wake of structural reforms after the global financial crisis and particularly the subsequent European debt crisis. When investigating whether various expenditure components of GDP may cause different unemployment reactions, an important issue that has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature, we find that domestic demand has a stronger effect. We also provide several robustness checks to our main findings, and illustrate how they might be used to improve forecasting.

Open access

Nikola Fabris

Abstract

In recent years we have witnessed a growing trend in cashless transactions as well as products and services sold exclusively in this way. Also, after the onset of the global financial crisis, private crypto currencies appeared that have raised some concerns. All of these changes beg the question of whether modern societies are moving towards a cashless society. This also raises a number of other dilemmas such as whether cashless societies have negative implications, whether they have what should be the response of economic policymakers, who would be potential winners and losers, and the like.

The paper analyses the arguments both in favour and against cashless society, the future of crypto currencies, as well as potential responses of economic policymakers to the emergence of a cashless society. The paper concludes with the observation that it is not reasonable to expect the transition to a cashless society in the near future but the next step in the evolution of money might be the appearance of central bank digital currencies, at least in some countries.

Open access

Fakarudin Kamarudin, Fadzlan Sufian, Annuar Md. Nassir, Nazratul Aina Mohamad Anwar and Hafezali Iqbal Hussain

Abstract

The purpose of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Malaysian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Malaysian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Malaysian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2006 – 2015. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Malaysian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Malaysian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. This study provides for the first time empirical evidence that covering all three efficiency concepts, namely cost, revenue, and profit efficiency is completely missing from the literature. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.