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Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are malignant neoplasms whose incidence rates increase each year. These also include neoplasms rare in the general population. The present case report described a patient with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) and rapid liver damage. In most cases, infiltration of the liver is rare in advanced stages of hematopoietic malignancies when hepatomegaly, cholestatic jaundice and organ failure are observed. The patient’s history includes non-specific abdominal pain that was accompanied by general symptoms such as nocturnal hyperhidrosis, subfibrile temperature and fever, as well as weight loss. The above complaints aggravate with an increase in organ size. The laboratory findings initially demonstrated moderately elevated concentrations of transaminases. In our case, the baseline biochemical indices of liver function were found to be normal. During the next days of hospitalisation, the features of liver damage intensified and were accompanied by liver failure. The gold diagnostic standard is a biopsy of the bone marrow and the organ affected. Since the patient’s condition deteriorated and liver failure developed, the diagnosis was established based on trephine biopsy of the bone marrow. Chemotherapy was implemented; despite the treatment applied, the patient’s clinical condition did not improve. Two months after the onset of first symptoms the patient died.


A rare case of asymptomatic traumatic neuroma, triggered by the performed amputation within the right thigh due to the osteosarcoma is reported. The MRI examination has shown a focal lesion at the end of the sciatic nerve, with isointense signal and weak contrast enhancement on T1-, high signal on T2-weighted images, without restriction diffusion on DWI. The morphology did not significantly change after 12 months, which confirms the primary diagnosis. The main limitation of the case is the lack of histological confirmation, since the lesion was not removed.


The aim of the study was to evaluate experimentally, the myoprotective effect of new chromone-3-aldehyde derivatives in conditions of muscular dysfunction and to establish a potential mechanism of myoprotective activity – the blockade of the function of sirutin 2. Materials and methods. The effect of new chromone-3-aldehyde derivatives on the development of muscular dysfunction under the conditions of an electromiostimulation test, was studied. The degree of muscle fatigue was evaluated in the «grip-strength» and through test biochemical assays (determination of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, concentration of lactic and pyruvic acids, creatinine, myoglobin, and total protein) to determine the possible mechanism of action of the test compounds (5 new derivatives of chromone-3-aldehyde) and their effect on the function of sirtuin 2 was evaluated.

Results. The study showed that chromone-3-aldehyde derivatives have a pronounced myoprotective effect associated with low toxicity (class 5 toxicity according to the GHS classification), which was confirmed by the results of the «grip-strength» test and biochemical tests data. Test compounds under the X3AC1, X3AOAC and X3AN codes evince sirtuin 2 inhibitory activity, which was reflected in a decrease in its concentration by 63.6% (p <0.05); 130.2% (p <0.05) and 218.8% (p <0.05).

Conclusion. The study showed that chromone-3-aldehyde derivatives are promising subjects for further study with the goal of creating a drug with a high myoprotective effect and an optimal safety profile.


Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole are actively researched by scientists and synthetic pharmacologists. The last studies have shown that potassium 2-((4-amino-5-(morpholinomethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)acetate with low toxicity series exhibits antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a method for determining the API in the potassium 2-((4-amino-5-(morpholinomethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)acetate substance using the method of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). As a result of this work, it is shown that the developed method is specific and meets the requirements of linearity, accuracy and precision. The results of determining the contents of the API in real samples indicate that the method can be proposed to control the quality of the potassium 2-((4-amino-5-(morpholinomethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)acetate substance.


Histamine type 2 receptor antagonists are one of the most commonly used agents to treat peptic ulcer disease. Since patients with epilepsy may have many comorbidities, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of one of the strongest second generation histamine type 2 receptor antagonist, famotidine, on the exploratory and spontaneous activity in mice after 1 or 7 days treatment. Additionally, the interaction between famotidine and antiepileptics: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital or valproate and their effect on animals activity was also evaluated. Locomotor activity was monitored electronically using a Digiscan analyzer in relation to ambulatory and rearing activities, as well as total distance travelled by animals during 15 minute periods. Results of our study indicate that famotidine administered alone did not modulate three variables of exploratory motor activity (horizontal activity, total distance and vertical activity) in mice. On the other hand, famotidine co-administered with valproate (1 day) or phenobarbital (1 day or 7 days) worsened vertical activity in mice in exploratory time. Similarly, impairment in horizontal activity in mice was observed when famotidine was given with phenobarbital (1 or 7 days). An increase in total distance in mice after famotidine alone or in combination with tested antiepileptic drugs was also shown. Moreover, famotidine alone or together with antiepileptic agents significantly impaired spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The presented results show that famotidine administration to patients with epilepsy should be considered as potentially hazardous.


Hypoxic cancer cells are more aggressive and responsible for more efficient metastasis and recurrence. It seems worth-while, hence, to supplement current cytostatic drugs therapy (i.e. cisplatin) with hypoxia cytotoxic agents (i.e. tirapazamine), the toxicity of which is activated by hypoxia. Cisplatin and tirapazamine can change a redox equilibrium and consequently lead to changes in cell metabolism, fibrosis and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cisplatin/tirapazamine toxicological synergism. In doing so we tested selected kidney oxidative stress parameters, as well as nephrotoxicity markers, in plasma and urine. Once a week for 6 weeks, rats received intraperitoneally two doses of tirapazamine (5 or 10 mg/kg bw), 2 hours before cisplatin (2 mg/kg bw) was applied. Our results show that Tirapazamine (TP) had no significant adverse effect on the redox balance, oxidative stress and kidney function in rats receiving cisplatin (CP). However, TP significantly increased protein concentration in the kidneys of rats. In all tested groups, a significant decrease in NADH concentration in kidneys was recorded, which could indicate disorder in the cell metabolism. TP also was found to have prevented bacterial infection caused by CP. In summary, there was no nephrotoxic synergy of TP with CP at an unacceptable level.


Introduction: Ethnobotany is the study of medicinal plants used by local people, with particular importance of old-styled tribal beliefs and information. Ethnobotanical studies focus on ethnic knowledge of Adivasi people and development of data bases on ethnic knowledge but also focuses on preservation and regeneration of traditional beliefs and maintenance of traditional knowledge.

Objective: The aim of present study is to highlight the traditional actions of herbal plants used by inborn Yanadi community of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Methods: The ethnobotanical field survey was conducted according to the methods adopted by some authors. In-depth interviews, interactions were conducted with tribal physicians of Yanadi, Nakkala and Irula as well as other tribes practicing and experiencing the use of plant-based medicine. A normal inquiry form was used to gather the appropriate data on herbal plants and their usage of inborn people’s lifestyle. Extensive consultations among local people and detailed documentation of the usage of plants were carried out

Results: A total of 266 medicinally used plant species belonging to 216 genera and 88 families were recognized with help of inborn herbal healers. The study also chronicled the mode of herbal arrangements, mode of the use of herbal plants in various disorders. The study exposed that native people of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve have good medicinal information and also have preserved plant-based medicinal system of their ascendants used all their diseases. Most of medicinal plants are used in the treatment of indigestion, snake bite and skin diseases. The authors feel that this type of study certainly helps identify ethnic leads for drug development in future.

Conclusions: The ethnobotanical investigation of Seshalam Biosphere area has revealed that the tribes possess good knowledge on plant-based medicine but as they are towards in advanced exposure to transformation, their information on traditional uses of plants is slowly getting eroded. The authors plead for intensive crosscultural studies involving all ethnic tribes in the country for prioritizing or short listing of ethnic leads for various disorders for ultimately developing global level drugs for human welfare and economy development.


Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by many species of the fungi. The toxic action of patulin mainly affects the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system. The aim of our work was to assess the toxic effect of patulin, based on the analysis of interleukin IL-6 concentrations in the liver of test animals loaded with different doses of this mycotoxin. The research was conducted on mice which were assigned to 6 groups receiving different doses of active substances. After decapitation, their livers were taken for laboratory testing.

Our studies have shown that chronic intoxication with patulin at 0.1 LD50 leads to a statistically significant increase in IL-6 concentration in the liver of the animals. We also found that the loading of experimental animals with a single dose of patulin in the amount of 0.5 LD50 and 0.2 LD50 also leads to a statistically significant increase in this interleukin in the examined organ. There was no difference in its concentration compared to the control group only after the single dose of the lowest concentration of patulin, while the highest average IL-6 concentration was recorded in the liver of animals loaded with the highest single dose of patulin. After applying, one-time doses of this mycotoxin in the amount of 0.2 LD50 and 0.1 LD50, the mean concentrations of IL-6 in the liver in animals from these groups were statistically significantly lower.

In conclusion, the analysis of the obtained results confirms the fact of the hepatotoxic effect of patulin.


Introduction: Blood brain barrier and multidrug resistance phenomenon are subjects of many investigations. Mainly, because of their functions in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) by blocking the delivery of toxic substances to the brain. This special function has some disadvantages, like drug delivery to the brain in neurodegenerative diseases

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how natural and synthetic substances affect the expression levels of genes (Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mrp1, Mrp2, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1) that encode transporters in the blood-brain barrier.

Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat hippocampus. The expression level of genes was determined using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method.

Results: Our findings showed that verapamil, as a synthetic substance, caused the greatest reduction of mRNA level of genes studied. The standardized extract of Curcuma longa reduced the expression level for Mrp1 and Mrp2, whereas the increase of mRNA level was observed for Mdr1b, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1.

Conclusions: These results suggests that herbal extracts may play an important role in overcoming the blood brain barrier during pharmacotherapy.


Flavonoids and their conjugates are the most important group of natural chemical compounds in drug discovery and development. The search for pharmacological activity and new mechanisms of activity of these chemical compounds, which may inhibit mediators of inflammation and influence the structure and function of endothelial cells, can be an interesting pharmacological strategy for the prevention and adjunctive treatments of hypertension, especially induced by pregnancy. Because cardiovascular diseases have multi-factorial pathogenesis these natural chemical compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities are the most interesting source of new drugs. Extracts from one of the most popular plant used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi could be a very interesting source of flavonoids because of its exact content in quercetin, apigenin, chrysin and scutellarin as well as in baicalin. These flavonoids exert vasoprotective properties and many activities such as: anti-oxidative via several pathways, anti-in-flammatory, anti-ischaemic, cardioprotective and anti-hypertensive. However, there is lack of summaries of results of studies in context of potential and future application of flavonoids with determined composition and activity. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo pharmacological studies of selected flavonoids (apigenin, chrysin and scutellarin, baicalin) in various models of hypertension carried out in 2008–2018.