Toxoplasma gondii is considered one of the most successful parasites of humans and animals. The ingestion of viable cysts through the consumption of undercooked pork is recognized as a significant route of human infection with T. gondii. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of viable parasite in tissues of free-range pigs from the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve. All pigs were of the Mangulica breed, raised in a traditional way. The serological screening was performed using a modified agglutination test (MAT). The isolation of viable T. gondii was attempted by a bioassay of pig heart tissue in mice, while the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeted at the 529 bp repetitive element of T. gondii was used to detect parasitic DNA in digested hearts. Specific antibodies were detected in 12 out of 18 pigs examined. The bioassay was performed for five MAT-positive and one MAT-negative pig, and a total of three isolates were obtained. qPCR was performed for all samples, including one MAT-negative sample that was not bioassayed. The presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed in all hearts with a positive bioassay as well as in one originating from seropositive and one from seronegative pig whose hearts were not bioassayed. The successful isolation of viable cysts, presence of risk factors (such as older age at the time of slaughter) and increased contact with the environment, along with the great appreciation of Serbian consumers towards home-cured Mangulica’s meat, make this breed worthy of consideration as a potentially important reservoir of human infection.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of commercial plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely Inict-1 and Incit-5, on the rooting of African violet leaf cuttings (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.). The production of African violets has grown considerably in recent years, thus it is important to study the most rapid and cost-effective means of mass production. The propagated plant material of the cultivar ‘Nagano’ was treated with Incit-1 and Incit-5. The following parameters were observed: the occurrence of the first root, the number of formed secondary roots and root lengths, the occurrence of the first leaf, and the occurrence of the first flower. The results obtained showed that the use of commercial rooting hormones, namely Incit-1 and Incit-5, exerted positive effects on the duration of rooting, the number of secondary roots formed, and the root lengths of African violets. During the research, it was observed that the rooting durations of all the plants treated with Incit-1 and Incit-5 were 5 days shorter. The results indicate that the plants treated with PGRs necessitate less time to root, less time to produce new leaves, and, consequently, less time to produce flowers.
Production system is one of the most important factors which have an effect on egg quality. In recent years consumers have paid more attention to the housing system in which eggs are produced with a significant increase of their interest in organic and functional food. Some consumers perceive omega-3 enriched eggs and free range eggs as beneficial for their health. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition and the internal and external quality of eggs produced in conventional cages, free range systems and of omega-3 enriched eggs. Samples of 30 eggs from three different production systems were taken from the market. For eggs from each system the internal and external egg quality traits were examined as well as the protein and fat content. The results showed lower fat content in eggs from cages (P<0.05). Free range and omega-3 eggs had higher content of protein in egg white compared to the conventional ones (P<0.05). Production system significantly influenced the shell breaking strength, Haugh units and yolk color. The shell breaking force was significantly higher in free range eggs (P<0.05). The highest value of Haugh units was found in free range eggs and the lowest in omega-3 enriched eggs. The results of this work confirmed that there are differences in quality and the chemical composition of eggs from different production systems.
This study was designed to describe and compare the time- and dose-dependent in vitro effects of selected trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol-DON, zearalenone-ZEA and T-2 toxin) on the motility behavior of rabbit spermatozoa. The rabbit semen was diluted in PBS supplemented with different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 μmol/L) of DON, ZEA or T-2 while the Control carried no mycotoxin. At culture times of 0h, 2h, 4h and 8h, the spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) with the help of the IDENT stain and fluorescent illumination. The motility assessment revealed different behavior patterns, specific and unique to each of the studied mycotoxins. DON exhibited the ability to temporarily increase the sperm motility, followed by its rapid decline at later stages of the experiment (P<0.001). ZEA proved to act as a highly toxic substance on the spermatozoa, causing a rapid decline of the motion and resulting in a fast and complete sperm motility inhibition (P<0.001). Lastly, T-2 revealed to be highly detrimental to the sperm activity even at small concentrations (P<0.001). Our data suggest that further experiments are needed due to the lack of evidence emphasizing the toxinogenic effects of trichothecenes on male reproductive capacity.
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of hemolysis degrees on the values of hematological and biochemical parameters in the blood samples of cows in early lactation. The study included a total of 45 blood samples of cows in early lactation. Out of the total number of samples analyzed, 15 indicated no signs of hemolysis, whereas 15 indicated moderate hemolysis and 15 severe hemolysis. The influence of hemolysis was examined by determining the bias (%) and by means of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results showed that the hemolyzed samples had decreased values of the HCT, RBC, MCV, and increased values of the MCH, MCHC, and PLT. The total number of LEU showed a declining trend with increasing degrees of hemolysis. The changes in the HGB values were not detected despite the visual identification. The hemolysis degrees showed a significant influence on the values of biochemical parameters. The variations in biochemical parameters were less significant in the samples with moderate hemolysis compared to the samples with severe hemolysis. The most hemolysis-sensitive biochemical parameters were the AST, TBIL, TGC, and NEFA as great variations of their values were found even in moderate hemolysis. A slight deviation was noted in the BHB and total protein values. With respect to all the parameters examined, the Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in the samples with moderate and severe hemolysis in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, hemolysis significantly influenced the values of hematological and biochemical parameters in the blood samples analyzed.
Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.
We explored the factors of interdependence of environment and agricultural production and possibilities of sustainable development with a methodological frame work of research, analyzing, comparing and synthesizing domestic and international literature. The authors propose a holistic approach to sustainable development, carefully suited to the regional and local circumstances.
Gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep are one of major constraints in grazing production systems worldwide. Control is commonly achieved using anthelmintics, but global occurrence of anthelmintic resistance to different drugs and the emergence of multi-resistant GIN species seriously limit the efficiency of their use. Therefore, integrated parasite management is widely recommended, with nematophagous fungi as one of control tools. Duddingtonia flagrans is one of the most used species, with various effect of different isolates. In previously performed coproculture assay, we showed low efficacy of D. flagrans MUCL 9827 against infective larvae (L3) of sheep GIN. The aim of current experiment was to reevaluate its nematophagous potential, using the medium where direct interaction between the fungus and L3 could be observed. Nematophagous activity was tested on 2% water agar with addition of chloramphenicol on three series of plates seeded with 500 and 1000 chlamidospores and agar blocks with 7 days old mycelium. At Days 0 and 5, 500 L3 of sheep GIN were added to test the trapping activity. The cultures, including control plates with only L3, were incubated at 25°C for 10 days, followed by evaluation of their number and reduction percentage. Nematophagous activity of D. flagrans MUCL 9827 against L3 was clearly demonstrated. However, the overall efficacy was poor since trapping was observed only in one out of nine plates containing fungal material. Potential reasons for such poor performance of the isolate of fungal species, otherwise known as successful in trapping animal parasitic nematodes, are discussed.
Components of yield and seed quality are traits of primary importance in bread wheat breeding programs. Yield components are obviously a major determinant of farmer’s income, whereas seed quality is very important for breeding quality. In this paper, the thousand grain weight (TGW) was chosen as indicative of yield features and the shelling percentage (RND) as indicative of seed quality (although RND is not directly connected to the technological/seed quality, but rather indirectly and it greatly contributes to the wider picture of seed quality). The objectives of the present research were two-fold: to determine the influence of genotype, the environment and their interaction on the thousand grain weight and shelling percentage and to evaluate the stability via the AMMI model. The grain samples were obtained from ten winter wheat cultivars grown in 2009/10, 2010/11, 2011/12 at three locations in Serbia: Novi Sad, Sremska Mitrovica and Pančevo. The ten winter wheat cultivars used in this study were: Evropa 90, NSR-5, Pobeda, Renesansa, Ljiljana, Cipovka, Dragana, Simonida, NS 40 S and Zvezdana. The thousand grain weight and shelling percentage were investigated and statistically analyzed via the AMMI model, which showed significant differences between genotypes at various locations and ASV rankings. The most favorable cultivar in the experiment was Dragana in terms of all investigated traits.
The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using UV irradiation for degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in naturally contaminated maize samples. The study was carried out by varying the distance of the contaminated maize from the UVA (368 nm) and UVC (254 nm) light source and duration of exposure of contaminated maize to UV irradiation. Two control samples of maize were used for the irradiation procedure, at DON levels of 1.902 mg/kg and 5.334 mg/kg. The samples were exposed to both UVA and UVC light at two different distances from UV lamp (15 and 30 cm) during three exposure intervals (30, 60 and 120 minutes). After irradiation DON content was determinated so the reduction levels could be quantified. Generally, the results showed reduced DON content in treated samples, but they were not consistent. The most probable reason for this was a very uneven DON distribution in naturally contaminated samples. For this reason, further research must be performed and should include irradiation of artificially inoculated samples with consistent DON distribution, the amount of irradiated sample needs to be enlarged and the higher number of replicates should be analyzed. As an additional improvement, an increase in frequency of sample mixing during the irradiation procedure needs to be done.
Products with added value are all those products which, in addition to requirements set by laws of food safety and quality, meet the additional requirements. The added value of products resulting from its higher nutritional and commercial value and very often involve products originating from organic production or products with geographical indications. Consumer knowledge of production values has increased exponentially and has fuelled a demand for healthy, quality products such as goats’ milk and cheeses. The single most important factor affecting cheese quality and yield is the composition of the milk, particularly the concentrations of fat and casein. Nutritional value of goat cheese derives from its energy value, content of essential fatty and amino acids, the content of vitamins, minerals and its digestibility. In this paper, organic goat milk and hard goat cheese were analyzed for fatty and amino acids profile. In addition, cheese was assayed for fat, protein, moisture, total solids, Ca, P, Mg and pH. The evaluation of the cheeses was performed to establish the relationship between quality and composition of milk and cheese. Obtained values for saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in cheese were on average 42.0, 54.4, and 3.60 %, respectively. Levels of glutamic, aspartic acid, lysine and leucine significantly increased in cheese comparing with milk samples. Mean values for fat in dry matter in cheese was 47.1 %, while for pH this value amounted 5:55.