Centrally located public spaces, such as old towns, are an important feature of historic towns. They are often the most characteristic and representative element of a town that brings together members of the local community, plays various sociological and social roles and promotes direct interactions between the users of space. Only high-quality public spaces can effectively fulfil their role. The aim of this study was to analyse spatial order in public spaces on the example of the Old Town district of Morąg in North-Eastern Poland. The quality of public spaces was analysed with the use of a self-designed method, a field inventory and a questionnaire survey involving 100 members of the local community who were asked to evaluate the quality of public spaces in the town. The results of the comparison were used to identify public spaces that require revitalisation. The study demonstrates that spatial order directly influences the quality of public spaces. Our findings indicate that multidimensional analyses of spatial order and opinion surveys provide valuable inputs and should be included in studies evaluating the quality of public spaces.
The paper examines the role of universities in city development under the Triple Helix model through case studies of Russian and British cities. The cases of Bristol and Sheffield illustrate that the implementation of the Triple Helix model can be achieved through different approaches. In Bristol, universities reached beyond their campuses to create a ground for cooperation with partners. In Sheffield, there was a platform for interaction with partners using the brand of a top university. Meanwhile, the examples of Tomsk and Novosibirsk provide some evidence for the growing importance of universities in the innovative urban economy. The comparative analysis provides recommendations for Russian universities, whose application of the Triple Helix model is prevented by the lack of experience in developing an effective marketing strategy and weak interactions between research and enterprises.
China has pursued a sustainable path of development in line with reality for four decades. Economic restructuring started in its vast rural areas, focusing on reforms targeting income increase for rural farmers. These radical sustainable policies that China’s political leaders imbibed were not embraced by Nigeria’s past leaders and these resulted in the bane of underdevelopment. The study examines the level and composition of the drivers of public-spending policy mechanisms that contribute to gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the agricultural sector in China and Nigeria and draws up a model of Chinese development for Nigeria. Secondary data was used and were sourced from FAOSTAT and International Monetary Fund’s Government-Finance Statistics (various issues) from 1970–2016. Random-effects model results revealed that the policy of public-expenditure (PUEXP) and intervention (INTEV) variables were significant but negative, while enterprise-development (ENTDEV), drivers of development (DRIVERS) and Dummy D1t (modest public-expenditure access) were significant and positive for Nigeria. Three variables were significant and positive. The dummies D1t and D2t (macro-economic stability) were positive and significant for China. Public-expenditure and GDP growth has an inverse relationship in Nigeria, but a direct relationship in China. In Nigeria, PUEXP coefficient is ˗0.6810 and 0.8902 for China. Hence, macro-economic stability, enhanced market mechanisms and economic progress resulted in China and hereby lessons are drawn for Nigeria. Public leaders are responsible for governing the market in a manner that induces businesses to produce public value. However, if public-policy mechanisms are not well-designed to fit the economy’s needs it could significantly influence the economy in a negative way, and the society bears the costs.
Modern society is fascinated by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), physical laziness, isolation from nature, and a preference for staying indoors. Despite the general acceptance and understanding of the health benefits of recreation in the open air, a change is being seen in the recreational patterns of urban dwellers, as they spend less time outdoors. In order to counteract such behaviours, we can try to apply ICTs to enhance time spent outdoors. The performed study aimed to find uses of ICT solutions in designing public spaces in order to enhance and promote a healthy lifestyle. The selected examples show possible applications of ICT in promoting active recreation, e.g. mobile applications for sport activities, urban games in line with the idea of the Playable City, and urban furniture and outdoor hotspots enabling access to the Internet. The research findings proved that digitisation is not only a threat to a healthy lifestyle, but that it can also create opportunities to improve the quality of life.
This paper evaluates the built area within “cadastral zones” (subdivisions of municipalities) in order to identify the expansion tendencies of settlements, with the aim of contributing to preventing future uncontrolled developments. Demographic growth always needs more construction so it is important to provide a spatial analysis of land use. The paper is focused on the expansion dynamics of built areas within cadastral zones due to rapid social and economic changes. The lack of researches for the Drenica region has affected land use, which has been unplanned and not-to-standard, and has not preserved agricultural land. In the last two decades – since 1999 – there has been considerable growth in the construction sector across all of Kosovo. Although, according to the spatial plan, property owners have the right to develop and use their own property in their own best interests, these regulations do not give them the right to work outside the legal framework of the local plan itself. Land use should be in full compliance with spatial plans, both national and local. This study will contribute to the sustainable urbanisation of settlements and preservation of agricultural land. The results of the study will also help to make important decisions for built areas, in also providing necessary recommendations for steps to be taken to have a land use based on common interests.
Theory suggests that cultural and creative industries (CCIs) cluster in cities where levels of socio-economic development are higher and where they can take advantage of the city’s hard and soft infrastructure. However, some South African rural areas and small towns have identified CCIs as potential economic drivers. This paper investigates the relationship between the presence of CCIs in non-metropolitan spaces and levels of socio-economic development using a municipal level socio-economic status index and GIS mapping. The results show a positive relationship between larger numbers of CCIs and higher levels of development. It is suggested that a threshold level of development must be met before CCIs will cluster in an area and become a viable option for promoting local economic development.
Access to water is vital for sustainable human socio-economic development. The study examined factors affecting households’ access to water supply in three residential areas in parts of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed to administer questionnaires to 200 households. The study area was delineated into residential types using the grid method. The result shows the dominance of improved water sources in the high/medium-income residential areas. Households in the medium-income area recorded the highest access in terms of distance to, and safety of water supply. The factor analysis explains 77.41% of the variance with three components, namely: water access, demographic and economic attributes. The results of the analysis of variance reveal three significant variables, namely: main water source, income and cost, which is significant at p<0.01. The regression equation model obtained is given as Y = 2.059 + 0.307MWS + 0.286INM + 0.164CST. The study concluded that main water source, income and cost are the factors affecting access to water supply in the study area. The study recommends investment in water infrastructure, giving a higher priority to low-income residential areas for improved healthy living and sustainable socio-economic development.
The goal of the paper is to evaluate and analyse changes in selective municipal collection, recycling level, and recovery, of waste. The article indicates the Polish legislation currently in force to systematise the organisation of waste management systems. It presents the participation of selective waste collection in the total municipal waste at the voivodeship scale, as well as changes in the number of individually segregated fractions (i.e. categories of waste segregation) of selectively collected waste in Poland. Moreover, the levels of waste recycling and recovery were analysed for the country’s ten largest cities, while also showing that the cities implement accepted goals of municipal waste recovery. On the example of Warsaw, the structure of collected waste was discussed and attention was paid to the problem of quality of collected waste, which results in it being sent to sorting facilities.
The article presents and analyses data on the educational potential of schools in relation to settlement type in Poland. On the example of two types of schools – successful and requiring help – their distribution was shown in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. For this purpose, data from the Educational Value Added (EVA) index for voivodeship schools were interpreted. On this basis, it was determined what type of school the branches represent, and then classification and analysis was made for the village/city and the number of inhabitants. The results show that the educational potential of rural schools is lower than that of schools in cities. The results were interpreted on the basis of theories of cultural reproduction, bearing in mind the importance of settlement type for the construction of cultural capital.