Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the study is urban farming and examples of urban gardens built in selected cities in North America and Europe. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of urban farming on urban landscape. Materials and methods: A case study - analysis of the ecological, spatial and social aspects of selected examples. Results: The idea of urban farming is gaining popularity and every year there are more urban gardens in cities in North America and Europe. There are several dozen urban gardens in Poland. Their structure is diversified so as to meet the needs of local communities. The character and scale of urban farming is diversified. These gardens satisfy aesthetic, scenic, ecological, social and even economic needs of small communities. They enrich the urban landscape with new, seasonally changeable enclaves of utility and aesthetic greenery. Conclusions: Urban farming is an ecological, social and spatial factor and a favourable alternative to urban landscape transformations. The development of urban farming should be successively supported by local authorities.
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this paper is to assess the use of EU funds in promotion of peripheral areas on the example of five provinces of Eastern Poland. The detailed objectives are defined as follows: identification of projects co-financed by the EU aimed at promoting economy or tourism, including promotion of tourism-related products and assessment of using the EU funds in promotion of Polish enterprises abroad. Materials and methods: The research material is a database of projects co-financed from EU funds for 2007-2013, projects devoted to carrying out promotional activities (economic or tourist promotion) were selected for the analyses. Results: Spatial and quantitative diversification of promotional activities co-financed from EU funds in Eastern Poland was quite significant, with the highest absorption in the Lublin province. Among beneficiaries implementing promotional projects the largest group were entrepreneurs and local governments, primarily at the commune level. Conclusions: In the examined area, EU funds were used primarily to promote enterprises on foreign markets, also through participation in trade fairs organised on many continents, and to promote economy and tourism of local government units.
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to determine the level of accessibility of personal computers and the Internet and their use for distance work by professionally active persons with disabilities living in rural areas throughout Poland. Materials and methods: Surveys were carried out during the period from June 30, 2010, to May 31, 2011, on a sample of 5,000 persons with disabilities, 1359 of whom, during the last 30 days of the survey, were gainfully employed - they were professionally active. The area of research included randomly selected rural and urban rural communes in sixteen provinces. Results: Personal computers and the Internet are most often used by the group of young people with disabilities and those who conduct their business activities in communes. Personal computers and the Internet are most often used by disabled persons with physical, sensory and complex disorders. Conclusions: It is necessary to intensify organisational, technical and legal activities and efforts that will contribute to a fuller and wider use of computers, the Internet and other assistive technology by people with disabilities.
Subject and purpose of work: The research problem is wellness tourism and its connections with forest economy. The main goal is to determine the mutual connections occurring between wellness tourism and forest economy. Materials and methods: The research was carried out in three stages using various methods: a comparative analysis of 39 spas, standardised inspections of facilities offering health tourism services and the selection of a facility being a model of good practice (case study). Results: The most important forms of the small tourist infrastructure offered to patients in forest areas are hiking and bicycle paths (92%), as well as horse trails and viewing points (about 50%). Cluster initiatives and cooperation with local governments and forest districts, consisting in joint promotion, are important. A diagram was developed, showing the interactions of forest economy and wellness tourism. Conclusions: Providers of spa services and State Forests are natural partners, yet the level of cooperation is low and mainly involves promotional activities. It is advisable to create a nationwide forest and sanatorium spa organisation that would coordinate activities in the field of forest economy to take advantage of tourism and health-promoting assets of forests.
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the work is the issue related to making investment decisions on the Polish market of café services in Warsaw. The work contains a theoretical and an empirical part. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of different ways of running a café in the form of creating your own brand, a network café franchise or cooperation based on an agency agreement. Materials and methods: The work was based on the problem literature, materials made available by companies offering cooperation in the cafeteria industry and reports from a research company regarding the HoReCa market. A prospective ex-ante analysis has been given the form of a business plan for a newly created coffee shop. Results: The basics of creating a new enterprise were discussed and the undertaking was characterized taking into account the location, competition, employment plan, marketing and risk assessment. A SWOT analysis and financial forecasts were prepared, taking into account capital expenditures, demand forecast, revenues, costs and margins, as well as the analysis of other financial parameters. Conclusions: Available business models offer the investor a wide range of investment options. The choice of a business model depends both on the investor’s expectations and its proneness to risk taking as well as on the location of the planned undertaking.
Summary Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study is to analyse the structure and the relation of the Polish-Belarusian cross-border cooperation network, to identify the key nodes in the network, to analyse the dynamics of connections between the actors, and to identify the most important changes in the structure of the network. Materials and methods: The article quotes the results of analyses of cross-border projects from 2004- 2017. The analysis includes projects completed, applicants, and partners of projects. The network analysis was carried out using Ucinet and NetDraw software. Results: The structure of the Polish-Belarusian cooperation is dominated by several large nodes, on the other hand there are many micronetworks - of three or four nodes, which are connected with each other. Conclusions: The Polish-Belarusian cooperation is of great importance for the international relations of the Polish state. Projects carried out by entities located at the border strengthen the cooperation, bringing a number of measurable benefits (hard and soft), depending on nature of the projects, as well as frequency and scale of the undertaken activities.
Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this article is to present the vision of ECLAC - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and its contribution to the reflections on economic development. Materials and methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive study. The first part of the paper contemplates the emergence and evolution of ECLAC thinking during its more than sixty-five years of existence. The second deals with dependency theory, ending with the current thinking proposed by ECLAC. Results: It results in a brief analysis of the moment of the globalization of the economy as an exclusionary process in the history of capitalism, emphasizing the importance of the ECLAC thinking, reinvigorated nowadays. Conclusions: It is considered that the dependency theory has been the great contribution of ECLAC thinking, with the change of focus from a viewpoint only from the prism of the central countries, to an optic from the point of view of the peripheral countries.
Two centuries ago, Asia delivered over 60 percent of world production; in the middle of the 20th century it was less than 20 percent. Currently, it is twice as large and this share is still increasing, above all but not only, because of China whose production is still growing at a rate twice as fast as the world average. China is trying to maintain high economic dynamics, inter alia, through investment external expansion. This aim is to be served, among others, by the infrastructure project, drawn up with enormous verve, known as the New Silk Road, which the Middle Kingdom addresses to 65 countries on three continents. While some hope for accelerating their own economic growth, others warn against the risk of becoming dependent on China. The article analyzes these challenges, pointing to the desired directions of irreversible evolution globalization by giving it a more inclusive character, which is also strongly emphasized by the Chinese authorities in their official enunciations.
Subject and purpose of work: The objectives of the elaboration are the following: 1) to analyze the regional changes (at the level of poviats) in the number of farms involved in milk production over the period 2002-2010; 2) to present the main factors affecting the ongoing changes in Polish farms oriented at milk production; 3) to determine the impact of the measure 121. “Modernization of agricultural holdings” under the RDP 2007-2013 and the applied system of direct subsidies for the development of farms oriented at milk production. Materials and methods: The work has been prepared on the basis of the analysis and synthesis of the source literature, statistical data collected and the author’s own reflections. Results: In Poland, in the years 2002-2010 there was a distinct regional differentiation in the pace of the ongoing changes in the dairy sector. The regions, where we observe the development of milk production, include almost the entire Podlaskie Province, the northern part of the Mazowieckie Province and the south-eastern part of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province. Conclusions: Within the RDP 2007-2013, significant funds were allocated to support the modernization of agricultural farms. Mainly under the measure 121 “Modernization of agricultural holdings” the investments were carried out in relation to the purchase of mobile equipment, they represented 89% of all investments. This was partly due to the actual demand and administrative procedures that stimulated these types of investments.