The history of the development of military aeronautical charts began immediately before the First World War. The first charts created at that time did not differ much from topographic maps. Air planes were fairly slow back then and had a small range of action, which meant that the charts were developed at the scale of 1:200,000. When speed of aircraft increased, it soon turned out that this scale was too large. Therefore, many countries began to create charts with smaller scales: 1:300,000 and 1:500,000. The International Map of the World 1:1,000,000 (IMW) was frequently used for continental flights prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, while 1:3,500,000 and 1:5,000,000 maps were commonly used for intercontinental flights.
The Second World War brought a breakthrough in the field of aeronautical chart development, especially after 7 December 1941, when the USA entered into the war. The Americans created more than 6000 map sheets and published more than 100 million copies, which covered all continents. In their cartographic endeavours, they were aided foremost by the Brits.
On the other hand, the Third Reich had more than 1,500 officers and about 15,000 soldiers and civil servants involved in the development of maps and other geographic publications during the Second World War. What is more, the Reich employed local cartographers and made use of local source materials in all the countries it occupied. The Germans introduced one new element to the aeronautical charts – the printed reference grid which made it easier to command its air force.
The experience gained during the Second World War and local conflicts was for the United States an impulse to undertake work on the standardization of the development of aeronautical charts. Initially, standardization work concerned only aeronautical charts issued by the US, but after the establishment of NATO, standardization began to be applied to all countries entering the Alliance. The currently binding NATO STANAGs (Standardization Agreements) distinguish between operational charts and special low-flight charts. The charts are developed in the WGS-84 coordinate system, where the WGS-84 ellipsoid of rotation is the reference surface. The cylindrical transverse Mercator projection was used for the scale of 1:250,000, while the conformal conic projection was used for other scales.
The first aeronautical charts issued at the beginning of the 20th century contained only a dozen or so special symbols concerning charts’ navigational content, whereas currently the number of symbols and abbreviations found on such charts exceeds one hundred. The updating documents are published every 28 days in order to ensure that aeronautical charts remain up-to-date between releases of their subsequent editions. It concerns foremost aerial obstacles and air traffic zones.
The aeronautical charts published by NATO have scales between 1:50,000 and 1:500,000 and the printed Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), while the aeronautical charts at scales between 1:250,000 and 1:2,000,000 contain the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF).
Nowadays, modern military air planes are characterised by their exceptional combat capabilities in terms of speed, range and manoeuvrability. Aside from aircraft, contemporary armed forces make increasingly frequent use of aerial robots, drones and unmanned cruise missiles. This is why, there has been a noticeable increase, especially in NATO, in the amount of work devoted to the standardization and development of aeronautical charts, as well as deepening of knowledge of navigation and aeronautical information.
During the interwar period, an estimated 32–36% of Polish territory was covered by the Polish Military Geographical Institute’s (Pol. Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny) 1:25,000 detailed map. At the same time, the MGI achieved a full coverage of the country by 1:100,000 tactical map. 50% of tactical map sheets were revised for the 1930s – many covered areas for which no detailed maps had been printed. Considering the fact that 1:100,000 tactical map was updated on the basis of revised 1:25,000 maps, another 17–21% of 1:25,000 detailed map sheets were finished or in progress by the German and Soviet invasion in 1939. The study confirmed additional 4% of 1:25,000 detailed map sheets as ‘partially compiled’ by the MGI and finished by the Germans. Another 17% of detailed map sheets are potentially to be found. Hypotheses, clues and evidence are presented in the paper.
The author discusses adaptations of maps from the Atlas of Silesia published by European cartographers in more important atlases and multi-sheet maps from the second half of the 18th and early 19th century. Thanks to such adaptations the cartographic image of Silesia could be observed far beyond its borders. Its quality varied, however, both in planimetric contents and in relief. While situation was mostly represented rather correctly in relation to the maps from the Atlas of Silesia, presentation of orography largely differed from the original as well as from its real character. Even application of three methods of relief presentation on a single map did not bring on proper results, mainly due to the fact that the authors of adaptations did not know Silesia.
Ubisense RTLS is one of the Indoor positioning systems using an Ultra Wide Band. AOA and TDOA methods are used as a principle of positioning. The accuracy of positioning depends primarily on the accuracy of determined angles and distance differences. The paper presents the results of accuracy research which includes a theoretical accuracy prediction and a practical test. Theoretical accuracy was calculated for two variants of system components geometry, assuming the parameters declared by the system manufacturer. Total station measurements were taken as a reference during the practical test. The results of the analysis are presented in a graphical form. A sample implementation (MagMaster) developed by Globema is presented in the final part of the paper.
When surveys of corners of building structures are carried out, surveyors frequently use a compilation of two surveying methods. The first one involves the determination of several corners with reference to a geodetic control using classical methods of surveying field details. The second method relates to the remaining corner points of a structure, which are determined in sequence from distance-distance intersection, using control linear values of the wall faces of the building, the so-called tie distances. This paper assesses the accuracy of coordinates of corner points of a building structure, determined using the method of distance-distance intersection, based on the corners which had previously been determined by the conducted surveys tied to a geodetic control. It should be noted, however, that such a method of surveying the corners of building structures from linear measures is based on the details of the first-order accuracy, while the regulations explicitly allow such measurement only for the details of the second- and third-order accuracy. Therefore, a question arises whether this legal provision is unfounded, or whether surveyors are acting not only against the applicable standards but also without due diligence while performing surveys? This study provides answers to the formulated problem. The main purpose of the study was to verify whether the actual method which is used in practice for surveying building structures allows to obtain the required accuracy of coordinates of the points being determined, or whether it should be strictly forbidden. The results of the conducted studies clearly demonstrate that the problem is definitely more complex. Eventually, however, it might be assumed that assessment of the accuracy in determining a location of corners of a building using a combination of two different surveying methods will meet the requirements of the regulation [MIA, 2011), subject to compliance with relevant baseline criteria, which have been presented in this study. Observance of the proposed boundary conditions would allow for frequent performance of surveys of building structures by surveyors (from tie distances), while maintaining the applicable accuracy criteria. This would allow for the inclusion of surveying documentation into the national geodetic and cartographic documentation center database pursuant to the legal bases.
Water quality of collapsible, concrete, earthen and natural ponds under different culture systems were assessed using of Photometer and tester. Temporal and spatial replications of samples were done in triplicates. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 4.6 to 6.8 mg/l, carbon dioxide 1.4 - 3.0 mg/l, nitrate 1.6 - 3.2 mg/l, phosphate 0.8 - 2.3 mg/l, calcium hardness 65- 100 mg/l, magnesium hardness 30 - 50 mg/l and total hardness 80 and 165 mg/l. Conductivity ranged between 346 - 472 μS/cm, total dissolved solids 232 - 316 mg/l, transparency 36 - 82 cm, alkalinity 105 - 245 mg/l, pH 6.35 - 8.03 and temperature 29.1 to 35.9 °C. Significant difference (P<0.05) was obtained among the parameters in the ponds showing the effects of the different culture systems on the water quality. Variations in the water quality was due to the presence of plankton and macrophytes found in earthen and natural ponds where semi-intensive and extensive culture were practiced, use of artificial feed in collapsible and concrete ponds where intensive culture was done, effects of respiration, photosynthesis and decomposition, source of water and materials used for the construction of the ponds. Water quality in the ponds under the different culture systems was good.
Nowadays, along with the advancement of technology one can notice the rapid development of various types of navigation systems. So far the most popular satellite navigation, is now supported by positioning results calculated with use of other measurement system. The method and manner of integration will depend directly on the destination of system being developed. To increase the frequency of readings and improve the operation of outdoor navigation systems, one will support satellite navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS ect.) with inertial navigation. Such method of navigation consists of several steps. The first stage is the determination of initial orientation of inertial measurement unit, called INS alignment. During this process, on the basis of acceleration and the angular velocity readings, values of Euler angles (pitch, roll, yaw) are calculated allowing for unambiguous orientation of the sensor coordinate system relative to external coordinate system. The following study presents the concept of AHRS (Attitude and heading reference system) algorithm, allowing to define the Euler angles.The study were conducted with the use of readings from low-cost MEMS cell phone sensors. Subsequently the results of the study were analyzed to determine the accuracy of featured algorithm. On the basis of performed experiments the legitimacy of developed algorithm was stated.
When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of different concentrations (500-7500 μg/mL) of gentamicin - GENT (aminoglycoside antibiotic) on the selected mammalian cell line (Vero - cell line from African green monkey kidney). Analysis of the cell morphological changes was microscopically evaluated (magnification × 400). Quantification of Ca, Mg and total proteins was performed using spectrophotometry on device Rx Monza (Randox). Quantification of Na, K and Cl was performed on the automatic analyzer EasyLyte. The cell viability was assessed using the metabolic mitochondrial MTT test. Vero cells were able to survive at concentrations of 500 (89.21 %), 1000 (79.54 %) and 2000 μg/mL (34.59 %). We observed statistically significant decrease of vital cell content at concentrations of 2000, 4500, 7500 μg/mL against control group. Vero cell line slightly reacted to the presence of GENT but total proteins and mineral parameters were not significantly affected. Vero cells were highly sensitive to GENT with a significant decrease of viability at concentrations of 2000 and 4500 μg/mL (P < 0.001). Our data reveal that GENT has a significant cytotoxic and adverse effect on the cell viability.
Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of laser scanning (TLS) and conventional surveys. In this context the issue of searching solutions which would integrate the existing models and lead to elimination of data redundancy is becoming more important. The authors analysed the possible input- of cadastral data (legal extent of premises) at the stage of the creation and updating different models of building’s interiors. The paper focuses on one issue - the way of describing the geometry of premises basing on the most popular source data, i.e. architectural and construction plans. However, the described rules may be considered as universal and also may be applied in practice concerned may be used during the process of creation and updating indoor models based on BIM dataset or laser scanning clouds