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Abstract

The article is an attempt to assess whether foreign discriminatory models can be used in conditions of the Polish economy. To date, there is no one voice on this issue. There are views that this approach is wrong. It results from different factors affecting a given economy, or another character of the economy itself. Another issue is also differences in financial reporting of individual countries, which is translated into financial data. In turn, a different view is presented by the trend that foreign models can be used in the conditions of the Polish economy, while the differences that appear do not significantly affect the quality and reliability of the received diagnosis. Accordingly, the article attempts to verify both above positions. For the purposes of the study, the article presents the results of research on a sample of 25 bankrupt companies from the years 2012 to 2017, which declared liquidation bankruptcy, and their 25 healthy counterparts. The diagnosis of their financial situation was made using E. Altman’s model of 1983. The results of the study confirm the validity of the thesis that a more correct solution is to adopt the second thesis, namely foreign models can be used in the conditions of the Polish economy, but only after suitable modifications and consideration of the Polish economic conditions. In contrast, the use of foreign models without such a procedure should not take place. Such an approach may have an impact on receiving an incorrect diagnosis which does not correspond to the real situation in the surveyed entity.

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors influencing the level of dividend payments in the companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in 1998-2017 as well as to provide empirical evidence for their significance, using a panel data approach. The object of research comprised the companies listed on WSE, as of February 01, 2019. The subject of the analysis are the dividends paid by the companies and the factors potentially influencing the decisions regarding profit distribution. The models estimated for the panel data, based on the theory, allowed selection of the best model, which is the random-effects model. Moreover, these models allowed identification of the factors determining the changes in the level of dividend per share. The best model was the random-effects model. This model allowed identification of the factors impacting the changes in the level of dividend per share, that is, the value of the company’s total assets and the history of the company’s operation on the stock exchange market. All structural parameters (except the intercept) were positive. It means that growth of each of these variables causes an increase in the dividend per share.

Abstract

The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary pension savings plans in Poland, based on the principles of operation and rates of return of voluntary pension funds (pol. Dobrowolne Fundusze Emerytalne, DFE). The selection of those funds from a whole range of solutions available in the 3rd pension pillar is due to the fact that only this type of voluntary pension saving plan provides complete and transparent information about the actual investment policy, the composition of pension investment portfolios, and the achieved rates of return. In order to evaluate the investment policies and the effectiveness of DFEs, the following research methods were used: a literature analysis, an analysis of financial data, and basic methods of investment efficiency assessment. The results of the evaluation lead to the conclusion that despite their adoption of similar investment strategies, the DFEs have achieved very different values of effectiveness. In the years 2013-2018, selected funds achieved higher than average rates of return, while others achieved returns that were no better than the interest rates of standard bank deposits.

Abstract

SMEs are a major provider of jobs, contribute to promoting the social and economic cohesion of regions and, in particular, they are important for regions facing high unemployment or lower economic development. The importance of assessing a company’s financial performance has been steadily rising in recent years. The paper aims to evaluate to what extent the financial situation of a company, especially the risk of financial distress and bankruptcy, is influenced by the macroeconomic environment defined by fundamental macroeconomic variables. The analysis of the interrelationships will be carried out at the national level for Visegrad countries. The criterion for financial distress is defined not only by capital restructuring of the company or extensive layoffs, but also as the results of the negative effect of the macroeconomic environment. To achieve the goal of the paper, predictive bankruptcy models of financial distress based on financial analysis of enterprises will be used as well as regression analysis and correlation analysis. The observed period for analyses will be from 2009 to 2016. It seems appropriate to pay particular attention to examining the impact of economic growth, and the exchange rate on the financial situation of the enterprise. These indicators play an important role in defining internal and external economic equilibrium, which is also reflected in the functioning of individual businesses and sectors. Based on the results of the GMM analysis, it was found that only in the case of the Czech Republic was it possible to follow statistically significant relationships between the selected indicators.

Abstract

This paper examines the mixture of distribution properties associated with heteroskedastic excess Bitcoin return data, using the volume of Google search queries as a proxy for the information arrival time, from a monthly data sampling period of June 2010 to May 2019. The results show that the volatility coefficients become highly statistically insignificant when the lagged volume of search queries is included in the conditional variance equation of the GJR-GARCH-M model. This clearly suggests that the volume of search queries is shown to provide significant explanatory power regarding the variance of heteroskedastic excess Bitcoin return, which can be traced from the ARCH process defined in the GJR-GARCH-M specification. A significant negative relationship between the conditional volatility and the volume of search queries indicates that Internet (online) information arrival reduces the risk premium in the Bitcoin market, which may improve market stability.

Abstract

Both the financial crisis of the first decade of the 21st century, as well as the deterioration of trade relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation were events that significantly affected the functioning of the largest listed companies on the food market: on the one hand, aggravating the conditions of economic functioning, on the other hand creating a stimulus to seek new innovative solutions to help companies survive on the market. The aim of the work was to present the impact of crises on the intellectual capital of WIG-Food index companies, which is an indirect measure of innovation. The MV/BV and q-Tobin index were used for the study, as well as selected quantitative methods: multiple regression, Ward’s method and seasonal additive decomposition. The results of the work indicate that the companies are divided into two groups, within which similar trends in shaping intellectual capital are observed. In addition, one of the groups clearly noticed the impact of the financial crisis and the introduction of an embargo on the shaping of intellectual capital.

Abstract

The aim of the study is to determine the level of financial literacy of academic youth from rural areas in the V4 Group countries, as well as to compare the results obtained with the level of financial literacy of young people from cities. The source of data used for analysis and inference were primary information obtained from own research (PAPI method, 900 people). The research used a set of questions to assess the level of financial literacy of adults proposed by the OECD INFE. In addition to primary sources, secondary sources were also used to achieve the goal. The measures of descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (F) were used. The level of financial literacy was determined at the medium level, which may indicate the low effectiveness of financial education measures implemented at different levels of education. The component of financial literacy where students from rural areas had the lowest scores was basic financial knowledge. Only 43% of people from rural areas achieved the minimum target score.

Abstract

This article contains main trends, assumptions and thesis about the social economy in Poland, which the author agree with. The main goal of it, is to bring together fundamental facts depicting the situation of the social economy in Poland (in theory and in practice) with the conditions that must be fulfilled in order for it to grow (also from the financial side). In the article, the aspect of profit in a social enterprise, was especially emphasized. To describe the topic the descriptive methods were used. The graphical analysis refers to the last three years, but to understand how the social economy operates in practice, author uses description of the data from 1999 to now, in this paper.

Summary

This article is an attempt to analyze the existing solutions in the field of the protection of personal data. Training and advisory materials on this subject prepared by numerous law firms (32) were analyzed, providing a valid explanation, understanding and implementation of the new obligations in the field of data protection. In addition the author conducted pilot interviews in accounting offices (17) concerning the protection of personal data to indicate the approach of service providers to the performance of the tasks in the field of personal data protection. The key findings of the study are: noticeable increase in the interest of the contracting parties in data protection issues, as well as presenting their positive aspects along with possible problems in their practical application. An important contribution of the author is also the presentation of the key points of agreements which the parties should pay attention to in order to avoid misunderstandings.

Abstract

Self-deception is classified as the one of the decision-making errors which impede making reasonable decisions. The efficiency of the financial market is associated with the belief that all the participants of the market behave reasonably. They maximise their utility and are able to process all incoming information in the correct way. Considering the fact that financial market anomalies happen, it should be considered that the efficiency of this market is a specific situation in which it may be found. In this work, the research results of the conducted experiment were described. The hypothesis was studied that persons of a higher financial status are more likely to undertake more risky financial decisions which may result in obtaining higher collected financial funds. As a result of the conducted experiment the working hypothesis was confirmed. Due to self-deception consisting in strong identification with the chosen status in the game, strengthened with their own convictions regarding the behaviour of particular professional group representatives, persons with a higher status showed a much greater tendency to risk than persons with a lower status.