Private green spaces are considered an important part of urban greenery. However, the extent of private green spaces in an informal city like Kabul is unknown. To this end, this study has mapped out the private green spaces in the informal settlements of Kabul city. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-supervised image classification technique was used to identify these private green spaces in three of the 22 police districts (PDs) in the city. Briefly, the classification consisted of defining training samples, extraction of signature and classification of the imagery. As a result, 330.3 hectares were identified as private green spaces, which made up 12.3 % of the total area of informal settlements in these three districts. With 217.1 hectares, PD7 had the largest area of private green spaces among the three police districts, contributing to 65.7 % of the overall area of private green spaces, followed by PD8 (21.3 %) and PD16 (13 %). In future, the map generated in this study could be used to monitor, manage and conserve the existing urban greenery in the face of private green spaces. The results could also be utilised by the Kabul Municipality and other relevant departments to implement an upgrading programme in the informal settlements of Kabul city, which would lead to fulfilling the environmental needs of the residents.
Since there is not enough data about milkability of the Jersey cows, the aim of this paper is to show basic milkability traits of this cattle breed depending on the parity and milk flow curve types. Cows had average daily production (DMY) of 22.23 kg, milk yield per milking (MYM) of 9.72 kg, and average and maximum milk flow about 1.66 and 2.49 kg/min, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that DMY and MYM of the cows in 4th parity was significantly (p---lt---0.05) higher comparing to cows in 1st and 3th parity. The duration of entirely milking is similar regarding the paritiesand only the cows in 3th and 4th differ significantly (p---lt---0.05). Regarding the effect of milk flow curve, the significant (p---lt---0.05) difference between unspecified and rectangular milk flow curve has been found for the average milk flow (AMF) and descending phase of the milk flow curve (TD). Cows with unspecified milk flow curve, have significantly (p---lt---0.05) lower AMF and longer TD compared to cows with rectangular curve. Cows with bimodal milk flow curve have significantly (p---lt---0.05) longer duration of the ascending phase compering to: unspecified, descending and rectangular. The results of this study have shown that Jersey cows have lower production and milk flow compared to other dairy cattle breeds. Nonetheless, they have uniform milkability traits, and a large representation of desirable milk flow curves which are associated with a beneficial effect on the udder health.
The present study shows the regulatory proposal related to plastic by the Peruvian government and also, the previous initiatives are described so that it can be taken as a reference for the successful implementation in other countries, taking into account the regulatory and business aspects at the same time.
Subclinical mastitis is an asymptomatic udder infection distributed worldwide with enormous losses in the dairy industry. The study’s objective was to determine the presence of this pathological condition in small dairy farms in the R. of N. Macedonia and to identify the most common associated bacteria. Milk samples were obtained from 96 dairy cows (378 udder quarters) in seven dairy farms, in 3 consecutive samplings 24-72 hours apart. The samples were cultured on routine bacteriological growth media and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolates were identified by AximaiD Plus MALDITOF MS Platform. Subclinical mastitis was found in 49 animals (51%) and 104 infected quarters (27%). The most frequent isolated bacteria on cow level were Streptococcus uberis (19.4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.4%) and Staphylococcu ssimulans (7.4%). On quarter level, the most isolated pathogen was Streptococcus uberis (35.6%) followed by Staphylococcu shaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3% and 9.2% respectively). Subclinical mastitis was found to be highly present in the selected small dairy farms. The most prevalent bacteria identified in the dairy farms (Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase–negative staphylococci) indicate that poor management and udder health practices, inadequate milking procedures and lack of mastitis control strategies greatly contribute to occurrence and persistence of subclinical mastitis.
The endeavors to preserve the forest in Bali cannot be isolated from the existence of local wisdom. Customary law, as a decision of Hindu religious leaders in Bali, is one of the local wisdoms which has been maintained by the society. This study examined the values of local wisdom held by indigenous people and reviewed the preservation of forests from a Hindu perspective. This research was conducted in three villages in Bali, namely Tenganan Village, Manggis Sari Village, and Sangeh Village. The residents of these villages believed that forest is a sacred area which must be maintained and preserved properly.
This paper evaluates possible relations between the clinical activity and the histopathological findings of the entire intestine in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To perform this study, hospital records of 64 dogs of different sex and breed diagnosed with IBD were evaluated. The results of this study did not show a statistically significant correlation between clinical activity and the histopathological assessment of dogs with IBD. Certain connections were found between diarrhea and lacteal dilation in duodenum, and hematochezia and villous epithelial injury in colon but no other associations were found between the rest of the lesions and symptoms.
Enolases are enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, which catalyse the reversible conversion of D-2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenol pyruvate in the second half of the pathway. In this research, the effects of α-enolase (ENO1) on steroid reproductive-related hormone receptor expression and on hormone synthesis of primary granulosa cells from goose F1 follicles were studied.
Material and Methods
Primary granulosa cells from the F1 follicles of eight healthy 8-month-old Zi geese were separated and cultured. An ENO1 interference expression vector was designed, constructed and transfected into primary cultured granulosa cells. The mRNA expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinising hormone receptor (LHR), oestrogen receptor α (ER α), oestrogen receptor β (ER β), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the cells were evaluated as were the secretion levels of oestradiol, activin, progesterone, testosterone, inhibin and follistatin in cell supernatant.
α-enolase gene silencing reduced the expression of FSHR, LHR, ERα, ERβ, GHR, and IGFBP-1 mRNA, potentiated the secretion of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and follistatin of granulosa cells, and hampered the production of activin and inhibin.
ENO1 can regulate the reactivity of granulosa cells to reproductive hormones and regulate cell growth and development by adjusting their hormone secretion and reproductive hormone receptor expression. The study provided a better understanding of the functional action of ENO1 in the processes of goose ovary development and egg laying.
Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is endemic to Ukraine. The aim of this work was to provide screening of different field samples (rodent tails, ticks, pellets, water, and hay) to obtain an actual picture of the tularaemia epizootic situation in the Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Mykolaiv oblasts.
Material and Methods
Samples were collected using the flag method (for ticks) and break-back traps (for rodents). Also, hay, water and owl pellets were collected for study. The F. tularensis genetic material in samples was detected using a 16S qPCR.
It was found that in Kharkiv oblast, 23% of collected samples were positive for F. tularensis, in Dnipropetrovsk oblast 1.9%, and in Mykolaiv oblast 0.4%.
Among the sample types, 34.7% of ticks, 1.8% of rodents, and 36.4% of pellets were positive for F. tularensis. The most frequent carriers of F. tularensis were the D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks (74.2% and 29.3%, respectively, of positive results).
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) can cause malignant T-cell lymphomas and immunosuppression in chickens. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) not only plays a critical role in inhibiting T-cell responses, but also contributes to multiple aspects of tumour progression. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential role of MIF in the pathogenesis of MDV infection.
Material and Methods
MIF gene expression levels were measured by using real-time PCR. Expression was assayed at different times in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and tissue samples of SPF chickens infected with different MDV strains and fold change was calculated by the 2–△△CT method.
The expression of MIF was significantly downregulated (p < 0.05 and FC > 2) in CEF cells infected with the very virulent MDV RB1B strain at 48 h post infection (hpi) and in the skin and spleen at 14 days post infection (dpi). The reduction of MIF expression was also found in CEF cells infected by reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), and MDV vaccine strain CVI988 or in HD11 cells stimulated with TLR2, 3, 4, and 7 ligands. Interestingly, MIF expression decreased continuously from 7 to 28 dpi in the thymus after RB1B virus infection while it increased after CVI988 virus infection. Upregulated expression of MIF was found in CEF infected with RB1B at 96 hpi and in the spleen and skin at 21 and 28 dpi.
The present study revealed the different expression pattern of MIF in response to MDV infection and indicated that MIF level may be associated with MDV pathogenesis.
Echinococcus granulosus is a tapeworm whose life cycle includes dogs and other canines as final hosts, while domestic and wild ungulates act as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading larval stage (metacestode). E. granulosus has a worldwide geographical distribution. Protoscolices and rostellar hooks of E. granulosus are useful for diagnosis and rostellar hook morphometric features may be useful to discriminate E. granulosus and related species. The present study was aimed to determine a more suitable lytic solution and to obtain a clearest vision for performing morphometric studies on the rostellar hooks of E. granulosus protoscolices. Five fertile hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep in Kirkuk slaughterhouse, Iraq, during June of 2015. According to the results of the present study, proteinase-K lytic solution is the best approach in morphometric analysis to get a clear vision of rostellar hooks and a safer usage in comparison with solutions containing lactophenol (lactophenol, lactophenol blue).