The textile industry is a significant sector of the Polish economy and is characterized by a strong potential. Its development can be ensured by activities in the areas of finance, technical infrastructure, environmental protection, and demographic conditions. The development of the textile sector is significantly affected by factors such as quality of commune and poviat roads, length of the sewerage network, expenditure on environmental protection, expenditures on innovative activity and on research and development, and costs related to employment and population of working age. The aim of this paper is to determine the attractiveness level of individual Polish regions for the development of the textile sector in relation to five microclimates, which somehow define the most important determinants of the development of this sector of the economy. In order to achieve this aim, the following research methods are used: presentation of statistical data and statistical methods of research. The authors test the research hypothesis that the growth potential of textile industry enterprises is the largest in the most prosperous provinces.
The clothing industry is currently focused on 3D virtual fitting. Many companies use size 12 as the core size; however, in recent years the average size has increased. For example, in the United Kingdom, the average size is now 16. Many companies have not updated their core size and often use size 12 as the size they are the most familiar with. The purpose of this paper is to compare real plus size body shapes with artificial avatars in relation to the fabric draping. This paper will investigate, how the body shape changes with an age (body height decreases, skin elasticity is lower, the shoulders are hunched, buttocks sag and fatness pockets are accumulated around the waist area). These factors are not considered in virtual avatars, but have a big impact on virtual fitting.
Woven and nonwoven fabrics present filtration efficiency higher than other air filtration media. Fabrics are selected according to air flow conditions and particle characteristics. The majority of air filtration media are nonwoven fabrics because of their cost, but they need high filtration area for high efficiency. Modified construction of woven fabric introduces high performance in air filtration and decreases filter size, which tends to have better competition abilities. The designed fabrics have considerable thickness and suitable pore characteristics by applying roving instead of weft yarns. Four factors (roving count and their turns per inch, picks per inch and fabric designs) were varied in order to study the effect of these factors on their performance in filtration. Optimum operating conditions for a determined range of air permeability and pore size were obtained.
Fabric surface tribology is an important area of study in upholstery fabrics, which is exposed to high friction and abrasion effects. In the studies on the tribology of upholstery fabrics, it is ensured that criteria such as better performance, less degradation, increased usage time, and user comfort are determined and taken into consideration in the woven fabric design. Surface roughness and friction coefficients are important parameters used in determining abrasion, deformation, and wear behaviors of fabrics. In this study, the surface abrasion behaviors of upholstery fabrics woven with basic and jacquard weave patterns and also different structural parameters were investigated in terms of the changes in surface roughness parameters (amplitude parameters: Ra, Rpm, and Rvm and hybrid parameters: Δa) and the changes in surface friction coefficients. These results were also related to the state of the visual changes in the fabrics. Rpm, Rvm, and Δa being roughness parameters were found to be important in the evaluation of the surface deformation of the fabrics after abrasion besides the Ra parameter. Results showed that the Δa roughness parameter could be suitable for evaluating the deformation of the textile structures to be used, particularly in sensitive applications.
Electro-conductive (EC) yarns can be woven into a hybrid fabric to enable electrical current to flow through the fabric from one component A to another component B. These hybrid fabrics form the bases of woven e-textiles. However, at the crossing point of an EC yarn in warp and in weft direction, there is a contact resistance and thus generation of heat may occur in this area. Both phenomena are inseparable: if the contact resistance in the EC contact increases, the generated heat will increase as well. Predicting this electrical and thermal behavior of EC contacts in hybrid woven fabrics with stainless steel yarns is possible with a mathematical model based on the behavior of a metal oxide varistor (MOV). This paper will discuss in detail how this can be achieved.
In this work, a method for the measurement of one-dimensional (1D) UV radiation dose is described. It comprises a new tablet dosimeter that measures the dose using reflectance spectrophotometry. The tablet dosimeter elaborated is a solid structure with a cylindrical form and has been manufactured with polycaprolactone (PCL) doped with a representative of tetrazolium salts: 2,3,5−triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The PCL used makes the dosimeter biodegradable and therefore proecological. The TTC dopant is distributed uniformly in the whole PCL tablet, and the whole tablet changes color to red under UVC irradiation. The intensity of this color increases if the PCL–TTC tablet absorbs higher doses. The color of the tablet is stable for at least 30 days after irradiation. It is proposed that the PCL-TTC tablet be used for measurement with reflectance spectrophotometry in order to determine the reflectance of light versus the absorbed dose in a fast and easy manner. On this basis, the PCL-TTC tablet could be characterized by providing information on its dose range, which amounted to 0–2 J/cm2. Moreover, other parameters were derived, such as dose sensitivity, quasilinear dose range, and dose threshold. The morphology of the tablets studied using scanning electron microscopy revealed their high porosity, which however did not influence the reflectance measurements with the aid of the chosen instrument. UVC irradiation at a dose (15 J/cm2) much above the PCL-TTC tablets’ dose range did not alter the morphology of the tablets. The PCL-TTC tablet read with reflectance spectrophotometry is shown to be a promising and fast method for 1D UV dose measurements.
Three-dimensional angle-interlock woven composites (3DAWCs) are widely used for their excellent mechanical properties. The most significant feature is the existence of the undulated warp yarns along the thickness direction, which makes it interesting to study the mechanical properties in the warp direction. The quasi-static tensile behavior of a layer-to-layer 3DAWC along the undulated warp direction was studied by experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) methods. Based on the experimental results, the typical failure mode involving fibers, resin, and their interfaces was found. According to the FEA results, the stress concentration effect, key structural regions, and microstructural (yarn and resin) damage mechanism were obtained, which provided effective guidance for structural optimization design of the 3DAWC with stronger tensile resistance performance. In addition, the three-step progressive failure process of the 3DAWC under quasi-static tensile load was also described at the “yarn–resin” microstructural level.
Fabric quality and performance is assessed subjectively by the customer using an important and complex phenomenon of fabric hand. Objectively, it is evaluated with complicated and expensive instruments, such as Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-F) and Fabric Assurance with Simple Testing (FAST). The present research explores a non-touch objective approach, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) drape model to estimate fabric hand. Fabric hand prediction was testified on different commercial fabrics spanning a wide range of areal weight, thickness, yarn count, and fabric density. Fabric objective ranks based on drape indicators using principal component analysis (PCA) were compared with subjective ranks of fabric hand. Additionally, fabric drape is evaluated three dimensionally and a new drape indicator drape height (DH) is proposed. The cosine similarity results have proved fabric drape as an objective alternate to fabric hand.
The objective of this study is a comparative analysis of the ballistic effectiveness of packages made of biaxial and triaxial Kevlar 29 fabrics under the hitting of Parabellum 9×19 bullet. We conduct both numerical simulations using the LS-Dyna program and experimental research in a ballistic research laboratory. Based on the comparative analysis of the results from the numerical and experimental research, demonstrated differences exist in the ballistic effectiveness between the packages made of biaxial fabrics and the packages consisting of triaxial fabrics. For this purpose, the residual velocity of the bullet is analyzed in detail in terms of the maximum deformation cone, the shape of the deformation cone, and the distribution of stress for the textile ballistic packages. It is established that the packages made of triaxial fabric show a considerably smaller deformation cone compared with the packages made of biaxial fabric, a more favorable shape of the deformation cone from the perspective of ballistic trauma and distribution of stress similar to materials with isotropic properties. Poorer properties are recorded for these packages in the case of the minimum number of layers necessary for stopping the bullet, which arises from the open-work structure of the fabric.
The layer of aerogel was applied to the surface of basalt fabric due to the possibility of improving a fabric protecting against the influence of hot environmental factors. The analysis of aerogel surface roughness and thickness of the obtained sample, resistance to contact heat for the contact temperature between 100°C and 250°C, and tests of resistance to the penetration of thermal radiation were carried out. In addition, thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, thermal diffusion, thermal absorption, and surface roughness were determined. The obtained results indicate the unevenness of aerogel application on the surface of basalt fabric. For this reason, work should be carried out on an appropriate technology that will allow them to be applied evenly on the surface of the fabric. The parameters tested and the results obtained are promising in terms of the possibility of using the fabric obtained in protective gloves.