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Isabelle Wienand, Milenko Rakic, Sophie Haesen and Bernice Elger
Laurențiu Staicu and Octavian Buda
Adriana Paladi and Victoria Federiuc
Ruthie Abeliovich and Edwin Seroussi
Lei Su, Zongqiang Xie, Wenting Xu and Changming Zhao
Mixed evergreen-deciduous broadleaved forest is the transitional type of evergreen broadleaved forest and deciduous broadleaved forest, and plays a unique eco-hydrologic role in terrestrial ecosystem. We investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of throughfall volume of the forest type in Shennongjia, central China. The results indicated that throughfall represented 84.8% of gross rainfall in the forest. The mean CV (coefficient of variation) of throughfall was 27.27%. Inter-event variability in stand-scale throughfall generation can be substantially altered due to changes in rainfall characteristics, throughfall CV decreased with increasing rainfall amount and intensity, and reached a quasi-constant level when rainfall amount reached 25 mm or rainfall intensity reached 2 mm h−1. During the leafed period, the spatial pattern of throughfall was highly temporal stable, which may result in spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture.
Dewpura A.L. Leelamanie and Chinthani U. Manawardana
Application of compost is known to improve the hydraulic characteristics of soils. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and short-term effects of solid waste compost amendments on selected hydrophysical properties of soil during dry and rainy seasons and to explore any negative impacts of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) amendments on soil hydrophysical environment concerning Agriculture in low-country wet zone, Sri Lanka. Eight (T1–T8) MSWC and two (T9, T10) agricultural-based waste compost (AWC) samples were separately applied in the field in triplicates at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates, with a control (T0). Field measurements (initial infiltration rate, I i; steady state infiltration rate, I SS; unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, k; sorptivity, S W) were conducted and samples were collected (0–15 cm depth) for laboratory experiments (water entry value, h we; potential water repellency: measured with water drop penetration time, WDPT) before starting (Measurement I) and in the middle of (Measurement II) the seasonal rainfall (respectively 5 and 10 weeks after the application of compost). The difference in the soil organic matter (SOM) content was not significant between the dry and rainy periods. All the soils were almost non-repellent (WDPT = <1–5 s). The h we of all the samples were negative. In the Measurement I, the I i of the T0 was about 40 cm h−1, while most treatments show comparatively lower values. The I SS, S W, and k of compost amended samples were either statistically similar, or showed significantly lower values compared with T0. It was clear that all the surface hydraulic properties examined in situ (I i, I SS, S W) were higher in the Measurement I (before rainfall) than those observed in the Measurement II (after rainfall). Water potential differences in soils might have affected the surface hydrological properties such as S W. However, water potential differences would not be the reason for weakened I SS and k in the Measurement II. Disruption of aggregates, and other subsequent processes that would take place on the soil surface as well as in the soil matrix, such as particle rearrangements, clogging of pores, might be the reason for the weakened I SS and k in the Measurement II. Considering the overall results of the present study, compost amendments seemed not to improve or accelerate but tend to suppress hydraulic properties of soil. No significant difference was observed between MSWC and AWC considering their effects on soil hydraulic properties. Application of composts can be considered helpful to slower the rapid leaching by decreasing the water movements into and within the soil.