A number of research projects have shown that both religiousness and quality of the marital relationship are important resources that can be used by parents rearing children diagnosed with autism. Our article brings up the link between religiousness of parents who have children with autism and the quality of their marriage. Fifty-three married couples (106 persons) living in Poland and bringing up children diagnosed as having autism were surveyed. Results obtained indicate that there is a relationship between parents’ religiousness (personal religiousness) and their marriage quality. These results can help family therapists, social workers and priests supporting couples parenting children with autism.
Aleksandra Krukowska, Artur Poczwardowski and Dariusz Parzelski
Leadership styles of coaches affect athletes’ sport and social skills. Recently, transformational leadership gained recognition as a beneficial, motivational and inspirational coaching style. Our study attempts to extend the understanding of transformational leadership in Polish youth sport through investigation of whether a transformational coach can lead a team effectively, while simultaneously contributing to athletes’ well-being and high performance. A male volleyball coach and twelve male volleyball players (15‒16 years old) participated in a study consisting of semi-structured interviews and participant observations. The results showed that characteristics of a transformational coach had an influence on athletes’ intrinsic motivation and involvement in training, and they served as means of satisfying the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Our study examines the relation between explicit and implicit attitudes toward academic cheating and the frequency of committing it among students of different faculties (pedagogy and psychology, and law and administration). The implicit attitudes were measured using two methods - the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). As hypothesized, the explicit attitude toward academic cheating was positively related to the its frequency. Results indicate that the implicit measures did not predict the frequency of self-reported academic cheating behaviours. The field of study itself was not a differentiating factor for any studied variables. The methodological problems related with using IAT and IRAP as measures of implicit attitudes toward cheating and the study’s possible limitations were discussed.
Our study explores the role of order effects when making attributions of ability of a performer in team handball. Participants of the study were asked to view a video footage of a handball player performing a passing and throwing task ten times. Although for everyone the footage consisted of the same ten clips, half the participants viewed a declining (successful to unsuccessful) performance pattern, whereas the other half viewed an ascending pattern. After that, participants rated the observed player’s sporting abilities. The results have shown recency effects in the attributions of ability when the judgment was made by players (for most descriptors) and by coaches (for some descriptors).
There have been increasing calls in environmental psychology for the standardized instruments measuring people’s subjective perception of urban environment quality. One such tool is a commonly accepted and oft-cited questionnaire for measuring perceived urban environmental quality, the Perceived Residential Environment Quality & Neighborhood Attachment (PREQ & NA) Indicators, developed by a team of Italian researchers: Ferdinando Fornara, Marino Bonaiuto, and Mirilia Bonnes. This article presents the results of the PREQ & NA’s adaptation study that we conducted in Poland. The adaptation project was divided into several qualitative and quantitative stages spanning April 2013 to December 2014. A total of 200 participants were examined, 99 women and 101 men aged between 18 and 89. We cooperated with six English and Italian translators. The results of our study demonstrated a factorial validity of the tool’s Polish language version relative to both the Italian original and its recent Iranian adaptation, which we used for comparisons with the data obtained in a non-European cultural area. In addition to describing the entire adaptation procedure and presenting its results, we propose that a number of minor but necessary modifications be made in the Polish version, as indicated by our analyses. Following a positive verification and discussion of the Polish adaptation’s convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity, we propose the final Polish version of the adapted questionnaire.
Numerous studies demonstrate that, regardless of the adulthood stage, sexual satisfaction is crucial to the general opinion on life quality. The models of sexual satisfaction presented in the subject literature display underlying differences in its determinants between men and women; little, however, is said about potential variations, which can occur at different stages in an adult’s life. The results presented in our article are extensively researched fragments regarding the psycho-social determinants of sexual satisfaction, conducted on 90 women and 77 men, aged 21−72.
Our study attempted to determine the extent to which age affects:
The sexual satisfaction level in women and men,
The relationship between psycho-physical attractiveness, close relationship satisfaction, and intensification of sexual practices; with the level of sexual satisfaction for both women and men.
The assessment was based on original questionnaires as well as on the Intimacy, Passion and Commitment Questionnaires by Acker and Davis.
Neither age nor gender influenced the sexual satisfaction level. However, they both affected the relationship between sexual satisfaction and psychosocial variables.
Objective: Studies concerning the importance of spirituality on the negative and positive effects of traumatic experiences are very rare. Our study attempts to determine the role of spirituality in posttraumatic stress disorders, approached as a negative result of facing traumatic events, and profiting from such experiences in the form of posttraumatic growth.
Method: The study covered 116 emergency service workers (only men), including 43 firefighters (37.1%), 43 police officers (37.1%) and 30 paramedics (25.8%), who experienced a traumatic event in their line of work. Those surveyed were between 21 and 57 years of age (M = 35.28; SD = 8.13). The Impact of Event Scale was used to assess the negative effects of traumatic experience, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for assessing the positive effects. Spirituality was measured using the Selfdescription Questionnaire.
Results: 61.2% of the workers displayed at least moderate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas 38.8% displayed low intensity symptoms. Taking into consideration the positive effects of experienced traumatic events, it was discovered that almost 40% of those surveyed displayed low levels of posttraumatic growth, 34.5% average and 25.8% high. Correlation analysis was been performed to establish the relation between spirituality and posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. Posttraumatic growth predictors were determined.
Conclusions: Study results show that spirituality is not related to the intensification of posttraumatic stress symptoms, whereas it contributes to positive posttraumatic changes. Among different aspects of spirituality, harmony plays a major role.
Dariusz Kuncewicz, Dorota Kuncewicz, Ewa Sokołowska and Jolanta Sobkowicz
Our article describes and illustrates a procedure for isolating a hidden story from a monologue on an assigned topic. The procedure involves four stages: 1) collecting data and preparing transcripts; 2) identifying out-of-key elements; 3) analysing and interpreting a text by means of linguistic and literary theory devices; 4) formulating a hidden story. In deducing a hidden story from narratively out-of-key elements, the vital part was identifying the rules of speech and analysing the contexts in which they were used in the monologue. The hidden story was reconstructed as a one-level narrative pattern on the basis of information inferred from different contexts of using speech rules, as well as from information explicit in the monologue. Our article also discusses the theoretical and clinical value, and new trends in the research on hidden stories.
Alicja Senejko, Dorota Chmielewska-Łuczak and Zbigniew Łoś
Our article discusses the research results aimed at finding relations between Internet usage styles and attitudes toward globalization. The research included 597 people, aged 15 to 39 years, from Poland by using two methods: 1) The World-I Questionnaire (by A. Senejko, Z. Łoś) to diagnose attitudes toward globalization (accepting, critical, fearful); 2) The Internet-Interpersonal Relations Questionnaire (by D. Chmielewska-Łuczak) – diagnoses four categories of Internet usage styles (distanced, frustrated, omnipotent, ambivalent).
The research was based on an idiographic analysis focused on the results obtained for the specific people under examination.
The results revealed the relationships between the distanced and omnipotent Internet usage styles and the accepting attitude toward globalization; between the frustrated style and the critical attitude; and between the ambivalent style and the fearful attitude toward globalization. The ensuing discussion can be used to increase Internet user awareness that it is necessary to look for a strategy for coping with the challenges posed by the Internet that is best adjusted to a particular individual. The competence in choosing such an appropriate strategy is a valuable asset for any contemporary manager who would like to target his or her offer at a variety of customers representing different Internet usage styles.
My paper describes a Polish adaptation of the family assessment tool called FACES IV. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of the model to the data with a sample of 499 Polish individuals from 150 families. The reliability measures of the two Balanced scales are similar to those of the American scales. However, the four Unbalanced scales have lower reliability. Reliability measures of Family Satisfaction and Family Communication are even higher than the American ones. A cluster analysis clearly depicted the extreme profiles of the Balanced and Unbalanced scales, with the remaining four profiles also present. Norms were developed for the various scales. Psychometric verification of this instrument showed that FACES IV-SOR is useful for research and clinical work with Polish families.