Introduction: The incidence rate of cancers emphasizes the necessity to investigate not only patients’ somatic ailments but also their psychosocial functioning as well as the need to raise the quality standards of cancer patients. The improvement of the quality of life is one of the major challenges of psycho-oncology, which is the science created in the interface of two disciplines: psychology and medicine.
One of the important aspects of psycho-oncologists’ activity is the minimization of negative side-effects related to treatment, such as changes in patients’ cognitive functioning resulting from anti-cancer treatment.
Objective: The aim of this work is to provide the reader with the knowledge concerning the phenomenon of chemobrain in a very special group of patients with hemato-oncologic tumour. Few researches related to this topic have confirmed the occurrence of cognitive deficits resulting from the cancer process, taken cytotoxic drugs, other forms of anti-cancer therapy and the activeness of biochemical compounds in patients with multiple myeloma.
Methods: The author has done a literary review concerning the topic under study using the Google Scholar and EBSCO databases. The main part of this work consists of references to Polish and English research literature published after 2000. The review includes also classic works from the eighties and nineties of the 20th century.
Results: The present work has been divided into several sections. The part devoted to explanation of the term chemobrain describes the evolution of its definition over the years. The second section - ‘Heterogeneity of the phenomenon - causes’ - underlines the influence of biochemical etiological factors, such as the impact of the activity of proinflammatory cytokines on the cognitive state of the patients suffering from tumour. Next part - ‘Chemobrain and multiple myeloma’ is devoted to the clinical characteristics of this cancer and to the descriptions of the selected methods of chemotherapy. The review of researches concerning the deteriorated cognitive functioning of patients with multiple myeloma in relation to the probable aetiology of this disease has been also presented.
Conclusions: The review of Polish and English literature concerning the functioning of memory and attention processes in the patients suffering from multiple myeloma can serve as an inspiration for a search for objective biochemical factors conditioning the deterioration of cognitive processes of the patients undergoing anti-cancer treatment.
Olga Nowacka, Henryk Welcz and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
The theory linking the development of mental disorders with the processes of human evolution assumes that these disorders may be the result of a side effect of natural and sexual selection processes. Creativity is one of the adaptive features associated with the increased incidence of psychopathological symptoms (as compared to the general population).
In this review paper, the definition of creativity has been characterized, and contemporary existing theories on its background, have been presented. Also, the paper describes the relationship between creativity and the presence of psychopathological symptoms. Special attention has been paid to the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder.
The research results prove the existence of a correlation between a high level of creativity and a higher prevalence of psychopathological symptoms, particularly concerning the symptoms of bipolar disorder spectrum.
Joanna Tomaka, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Michał Dzikowski, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Marta Flis, Aleksandra Siek and Michał Próchnicki
More and more evidence confirms the theory that the intake of cereal products containing gluten may play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. There are also premises indicating the relationship between the so-called gluten-related diseases and the development and course of mental disorders, including schizophrenia.
The aim of this article is to review the literature on the potential relationship between the consumption of gluten and schizophrenia, considering the etiopathogenesis and the role of gluten-free diet in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Methods: There were analysed available research papers in PubMed and Google Scholar with the key words: schizophrenia, gluten- related disorders, allergy to grain products, celiac disease, microbiota, immune system, exorphins and time span: 1960-2016 .
Conclusions: Existing research results indicate a possible relationship between diet rich in grain products with high gluten content and the occurrence or exacerbation of schizophrenia symptoms. However, further studies are necessary to: 1) identify groups of patients for whom the consumption of cereal products (gluten) is associated with a particular risk of schizophrenia exacerbation, 2) determine the mechanisms relating the consumption of gluten with the mental state of schizophrenic patients, 3) get the possible benefits of implementing gluten-free diet in patients with schizophrenia.
Agata Makarewicz, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz and Łukasz Łobejko
Introduction: In the last decades, researchers' attention has been focused on cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Numerous studies indicate the existence of neurodegenerative deficits in schizophrenia including, but not limited to, motor functions, learning and memory, executive functions, attention, language, spatial skills and general intelligence.
Method: A review of available literature on the topic of the past two decades, available in the Pubmed, EBSCO, SCOPUS databases has been made using the keywords: schizophrenia, cognition, early intervention.
Results: Cognitive dysfunction is an important feature of the prodromal phase and the first episode of schizophrenia. Researchers have thus proposed to initiate early therapeutic interventions for people with so-called risky mental conditions. The article includes the reference to research on neurocognitive disorders essence in schizophrenia, the definition and review of methods used to identify specific cognitive deficits and issues related to risk of developing psychosis and early therapeutic intervention in high-risk states.
Conclusions: Researchers report the importance of detecting cognitive disorders in the early stages of schizophrenia. This broadens the range of therapeutic interventions and enables early intervention in the increased risk of psychosis.
Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.
Rafał Dubiel, Adam Perzyński, Ida Kłębukowska, Aneta Perzyńska-Starkiewicz, Iwona Chmiel-Perzyńska and Marcin Olajossy
The paper describes a patient, who has been consulted and hospitalized multiple times, due to dermatological lesions on his face. We will present his medical history and describe circumstances leading to the final diagnosis of factitious disorder. In the theoretical part we will try to answer the question, whether the extreme severity of the factitious disorders can, at some point, reach the level of delusions.
Introduction: DM provokes peripheral complications and changes in central nervous system. Central changes in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM) include changes in brain tissue structure, electrophysiological abnormalities but also disturbances in neurotransmission leading to cognitive decline.
Aim of the study: The aim of our study was to asses cognitive functioning of patients suffering from DM1 for at least 5 years but without any diagnosed complications.
Materials and methods: Cognitive functions were assessed in 59 patients (35 men) with Trail Making Test A (TMT A) and B (TMT B), Maze Test (MT), Stroop Test (SCWT) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Mental disorders were excluded with Beck’s Depression Inventory (BT), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and psychiatric examination.
Results: We stated that women, compared with men, presented worsening of executive functions, speed and motor control. Cognitive decline depended on number of episodes of at least moderate hypoglycemia and duration of disease. HbA1c below 8% resulted in better memory, speed and motor control. Cognitive decline was more escalated in the patients with atherogenic lipid profile.
Conclusions: It seems that even apparent lack of complications is not unambiguous with lack of cognitive decline and women seem to be more susceptible. DM1 affects young individuals, whose cognitive functions are in the course of the development, so it is important to find the underlying mechanisms and the areas of disturbed cognitive functioning and further investigations are needed.
Ewa Dziurzyńska, Beata Pawłowska and Emilia Potembska
The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK) by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF) by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.
Łukasz Łobejko, Piotr Machała, Agata Makarewicz and Hanna Karakuła Juchnowicz
Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is an organic chemical compound of the lactones group, undergoing biotransformation into gamma-hydroxybutyrate after the intake (GHB). Because of the easy access, low price and fast psychotropic effect, GBL is becoming increasingly popular substance having intoxicating effect. Taking of GBL causes dose-dependent euphoric, sedative, hypnotic effects. Its use can quickly lead to physical dependence with severe course of withdrawal syndromes. Withdrawal symptoms resemble those occurring in the course of addiction to alcohol or benzodiazepines. In some patients, delirium develops during substance withdrawal. There are described severe, life-threatening complications in the course of delirium in GBL-dependent patients. The management of withdrawal syndromes and delirium mainly involves administration of benzodiazepines. In this paper, we present a case of delirium in 24-year-old man addicted to GBL hospitalized in a psychiatric ward. Delirium in this patient went without complications and was successfully managed with diazepam and lorazepam.
The present paper discusses the problem of dental anxiety. Based on the scientific review of Polish literature of the past 10 years, there are discussed causes of dental anxiety in different age groups and the methods of assessing the level of anxiety – physiological, behavioral, projection and psychological. Dental anxiety affects the patients’ attitude towards their own health, confidence in dentist, the frequency of reporting to the dental prophylaxis and treatment, which translates into oral health. It is also a major impediment to everyday clinical practice of a dentist.