Nanostructured CdO thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from fresh and aged (1, 2, 3 and 4 days) precursor solutions. XRD studies confirm that all the films exhibit cubic crystal structure with a (1 1 1) preferential orientation. The preferential orientation factor f(1 1 1) increases with an increase in aging the period of precursor solution. The 2θ value of the (1 1 1) plane shifts towards lower Bragg angles with aging inferring an expansion in the lattice volume of the aged films. Increased crystallite size is observed for the 3-days aged film for which minimum strain and dislocation density values are obtained. Optical transparency increases with an increase in aging period of the precursor solution and the optical band gap exhibits a red shift from 2.48 eV to 2.32 eV. Minimum resistivity of 0.78 × 10−2 Ω·cm is observed for the CdO film prepared from 3-days aged solution. The obtained results infer that the CdO film prepared from 3-days aged solution exhibits better physical properties than the others.
Pure CdO nanopowder and CdO-Fe3O4 nanocomposite were synthesized by a cost effective chemical method, and the samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and PL. Also, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of the synthesized samples were studied. XRD patterns of the composite confirm the presence of diffraction peaks related to both CdO and Fe3O4. EDX spectrum confirms the presence of the elements Cd, O and Fe in the composite. Peaks related to Cd–O and Fe–O bonds were observed respectively at 688 cm−1 and 592 cm−1 in the FT-IR spectrum. The paramagnetic behavior of pure CdO becomes ferromagnetic when coupled with Fe3O4. The composite exhibited a high photodegradation efficiency of 92.85 % against the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light radiation.
In this study, CdZnO films prepared at different ratios of dopants (CdO:ZnO = 5:5, CdO:ZnO = 6:4, and CdO:ZnO = 8:2) were coated on glass surface by using the sol-gel spin coating technique. After this process, surface structure and optical properties of the CdZnO films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface structure of the CdZnO films depended on the content of ZnO and CdO in the films. Low percentage of CdO films were very similar to the ZnO film but higher amount of CdO resuted in granular structures together with pure structure of ZnO in the films. Eg values of produced CdZnOs depended on the additions of CdO and ZnO. The obtained Eg values of the produced CdO:ZnO = 5:5 (S3), CdO:ZnO = 6:4 (S4), and CdO:ZnO = 8:2 (S5) films are 2.5 eV, 2.49 eV, and 2.4 eV, respectively.
Nanocomposite silica thin films made using the sol-gel method were studied. The nano-silica films were prepared using a mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), deionized water, ethanol, and ammonia solution. To control the growth of the particles inside the film, the nanocomposite silica film was prepared using a mixture of the nano-silica sol and the silica sol. The change in the particle size with the heat treatment temperature ranging from 450 °C to 1100 °C was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), NKD (refractive index-N, extinction coefficient-K, and thickness-D) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry were used for characterization purposes. The XRD studies showed that the nano-silica thin films were amorphous at all annealing temperatures except for 1100 °C. The_-cristobalite crystal structure formed at the annealing temperature of 1100 °C. Optical parameters, such as refractive indices and extinction coefficients, were obtained using the NKD analyzer with respect to the annealing temperature of the films. The activation energy and enthalpy of the nanocomposite silica film were evaluated as 22.3 kJ/mol and 14.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The cut-off wavelength values were calculated by means of extrapolation of the absorbance spectra estimated using the UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements. A red shift in the absorption threshold of the nanocomposite silica films indicated that the size of the silica nanoparticles increased with an increase of the annealing temperatures from 450 °C to 900 °C, and this confirms the quantum confinement effect in the nanoparticles.
Structural, electronic, intrinsic magnetic, anisotropic elastic properties, sound velocities and Debye temperature of Fe1−xMnx B (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) transition metal monoborides have been studied by first-principles calculations within the method of virtual crystal approximation (VCA) based on density-functional theory (DFT) through generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average magnetic moment per cell increased with increasing of Mn content, which could be associated with the relationship between the composition and magnetic properties. The observed magnetic behavior of Fe1−xMnx B compounds can be explained by Stoner model. Lattice parameters and Debye temperature agree well with the experimental values. Furthermore, we have plotted three-dimensional (3D) surfaces and planar contours of the directional dependent Young and bulk moduli of the compounds on several crystallographic planes, to reveal their elastic anisotropy versus Mn content (x) in Fe1−xMnx B.
Nuray Ucar, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Mervin Olmez, Elif Can and Ayşen Onen
Graphene, a carbon allotrope, became a significant area of research with its superior electrical, mechanical, optical properties, etc. There are several methods to obtain graphene oxide from graphite, one of which is the Hummers method. In this study, several modifications and pre-treatments preceding the Hummers method have been employed. Three different graphene oxide fibers have been produced by three different procedures, i.e. fibers obtained by Hummers method with pre-oxidation step, modified Hummers method and modified Hummers method with pre-oxidation step. It has been observed that pre-oxidation has a significant effect on graphene oxide fiber properties produced by wet spinning process (coagulation). Modified Hummers method without pre-oxidation leads to the highest breaking strength and breaking elongation. Reduced fiber linear density, breaking strength and breaking elongation together with increased crimp were observed in graphene fiber due to the addition of pre-oxidation step.
Fillali Cherif, Ilyes Baba Ahmed, Abdelkader Abderrahmane and Saad Hamzaoui
Silicon as a raw material for solar cells can be produced by numerous methods. The carbothermic reduction of silica using electric arc furnace is the most widely used process in silicon industry. This paper presents a new approach to produce solar grade silicon using microwave furnace. Pellets of different sizes were prepared from a mixture of silica and carbon using water and polyvinyl alcohol as binder agents. Raman spectra indicated a peak at about 515 cm−1 attributed to silicon in the pellets prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, and peaks at about 523 cm−1 and 794 cm−1 attributed to silicon and silicon carbide, in the pellets prepared with water. The pellet size affects the absorption of microwave energy emitted from the magnetrons. Polyvinyl alcohol as a binder agent is promising for the production of silicon using microwave furnace.
K.K. Pathak, Mimi Akash Pateria, Kusumanjali Deshmukh and Piyush Jha
Present paper reports optical and electrical properties of samarium doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin film which was grown on a glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method (CBD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the deposited films were nanocrystalline with sphalerite cubic structure. The average crystallite size calculated from FWHM of XRD peaks was found to be 10.11 nm. The bandgap of the Sm doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin films was calculated to be 1.91 eV to 2.22 eV. The optical absorption edge of undoped (pure) and Sm doped CdSe films was obtained between 650 nm to 640 nm showing blue shift as compared to bulk CdSe. Sm doping further enhanced the photoconductivity of these films. The I-V characteristic confirmed the suitability of prepared films for photosensor applications.
Optical properties of Si single crystals with different orientations (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in a spectral range of 200 nm to 2500 nm. The data of optical absorption revealed an indirect allowed transition with energy gap of 1.1 ± 0.025 eV. An anomalous dispersion in refractive index. The normal dispersion of the refractive index was discussed according to Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The oscillator energy Eo, dispersion energy Ed, high frequency dielectric constant ∈∞, lattice dielectric constant ∈L and electronic polarizability αe were estimated. The real ∈1 and imaginary ∈2 parts of dielectric constant were also determined.
A.K. Sharma, S.S. Potdar, M.A. Yewale, Deepak B. Shirgaonkar, K.S. Pakhare, B.M. Sargar, M.V. Rokade and U.M. Patil
Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method from aqueous cadmium nitrate solution. The bath temperatures were maintained at room temperature (25 °C) and at higher temperature (80 °C). The structural studies revealed that the films showed mixed phases of CdO and Cd(OH)2 with hexagonal/monoclinic crystal structure. Annealing treatment removed the hydroxide phase and the films converted into pure CdO with cubic, face centered crystal structure. SEM micrographs of as-deposited films revealed nanowire-like morphology for room temperature deposited films while nanorod-like morphology for high temperature deposited films. However, cube-like morphology was observed after air annealing. Elemental composition was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Band gap energies of the as-deposited films varied over the range of 3 eV to 3.5 eV, whereas the annealed films showed band gap energy variation in the range of 2.2 eV to 2.4 eV. The annealed films were successfully investigated for NH3 sensing at different operating temperatures and at different gas concentrations. The room temperature synthesized film showed a response of 17.3 %, whereas high temperature synthesized film showed a response of 13.5 % at 623 K upon exposure to 24 ppm of NH3.