Patients with uremic diseases and in the stage of chronic renal failure are mainly treated with hemodialysis, which can extend the life and improve the quality of life of patients. Nevertheless, hemodialysis causes numerous adverse reactions, such as infection. Infection after hemodialysis treatment not only increases the suffering of patients but also increases treatment costs and risks. Therefore, hemodialysis complications are a serious global problem and have received extensive attention from clinicians and researchers. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the infection factors of hemodialysis patients. This review aims to provide the basis and guidance for controlling and preventing infection in hemodialysis patients.
Epidemiological studies have shown that infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an influential risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb), the rapid progression of the initial infection to active tuberculosis (TB), and the reactivation of latent TB infection. MTb infection is also one of the most common opportunistic infections in people with HIV, including AIDS patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Given the prevalence of HIV infection, the incidence of TB infection, which had begun to decline, is facing a severe situation. HIV associated with TB exerts an immense burden on the public health-care system, especially in countries with high incidences of HIV infection. Therefore, the global policies for the prevention and control of TB should be revised. Moreover, an increased investment in TB control has to be guaranteed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the prevention, treatment, and control of HIV and TB co-infection.
Radical hysterectomy (RH) and pelvic lymphadenectomy are the main treatment methods for early cervical cancer and endometrial carcinoma. Effective care measures, however, can decrease the incidence of UTIs and complications associated with RH and pelvic lymphadenectomy, as well as improve the therapeutic effects of administered drugs and patient prognosis. The writer refers to relevant literatures to analyze the reasons for postoperative UTIs and to provide a brief summary of the nursing methods for and progress in UTI prevention.
Worldwide, cervical cancer remains as one of the most common malignancies that threaten women's health. An epidemiological survey has shown that high-risk chronic HPV infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Thus, the prevention of HPV infection is the main approach to the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Sexual behavior, individual immunity, and age are important cofactors in the promotion of HPV infection. Preventive measures that have been gradually implemented worldwide have significantly decreased the incidence of cervical cancer in recent years. These measures include preventive vaccination against common high-risk HPV and cervical cancer screening, which includes HPV testing. HPV testing in cervical cancer screening has received increased attention and provides the basis for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Given that HPV infection rates significantly vary from region to region, procedures for cervical cancer screening should be improved based on regional differences.
Orthopedic patients mostly comprise traumatic patients and elderly or sick individuals. More patients with emergency surgery suffer from open wounds and serious pollution, and operation time is relatively long. Thus, orthopedic patients with surgical incision infection account for a large proportion of incidence of hospital infection. Orthopedic patients are also bedridden for long periods, and they receive poor bone tissue blood supply. In surgical incision infections, mild cases suffer from delayed wound healing, whereas severe cases can form osteomyelitis. This study reviews progress of research on risk factors of nosocomial infection among orthopedic patients in recent years.
B cells play immunomodulatory roles mainly by presenting antigens and producing antibodies. In recent years, some B cells were shown to exhibit regulatory functions. This type of B cell was named regulatory B cells (Bregs). Bregs can mediate immune tolerance to inhibit excessive inflammatory responses and to accelerate recovery of inflammation by producing interleukin 10 and/or transforming growth factor β1 and other inhibitory cytokines. Studies showed that Bregs play important roles in parasites, bacteria, and viral infections. This study reviews biological characteristics, functions, and microsignal regulation of Bregs and their mechanism in infectious diseases and related research progress.
Multiple studies elucidated the importance of cellular immune mechanisms for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, recent studies showed that B lymphocytes play a role that is underestimated through various interactions with cellular immune response, forming an important aspect of host defense against M. tuberculosis bacteria. Therefore, the author hereby proposes a progressive perspective for immunology of tuberculosis, i.e., cellular immunity and humoral immunity are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The present study summarizes recent studies that support the important role of B lymphocytes in terms of M. tuberculosis infection.
Significant progress was observed in studies of the relationship between oral Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer and tumors. Based on three distinct and close relationships, namely, the relationship between oral H. pylori and gastric cancer, between oral microbial communities and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and between oral microbial communities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and tumors, this work reviews the relationship between oral microbial communities and tumors. This research also provides reference for further analysis of the relationship between oral microorganisms and tumors to realize early diagnosis of tumor patients through detecting oral microorganisms under adjuvant therapy.
Severe surgical infection refers to infection after surgical treatment or surgical operation, accounting for approximately 30% of surgical diseases. This type of infection can cause extensive inflammation and tissue injury and reduce success rate of surgical treatments. Immune defense plays an important role in antiinfection treatment of hosts. Infection immunity is a series of physiological defense mechanisms for recognition of immune system and removal of pathogens. As for severe surgical infection, immunotherapy becomes an important and promising therapy for severe surgical infection. This study summarizes recent progresses achieved in immunization and immunotherapy of surgical infection.
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common pathogens among humans, and it is also closely related to stomach diseases. Spread of its diseases must be understood to properly control H. pylori. Oral H. pylori may also play an important role in the spread of the bacterium. This study provides an overview on the role of oral H. pylori in spread, diagnosis, and prevention of this organism. The present work also determines difficulties encountered in current studies and progress of research on the relationship between oral H. pylori and oral diseases.