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Some forensic aspects of the nasal septal deformities

Abstract

OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the foreign aspects in nasal septal deformities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Mladina classification of the nasal septal deformities was used.

RESULTS. Types 5 and 6 have been dominantly inherited. The mechanism of the onset and possible connection to the trauma against the nose, as well as clinical implications of the remaining four types of the nasal septal deformities, have been explained and described in detail, giving the court expert witnesses the excellent opportunity to make a reliable and valuable finding.

CONCLUSION. Type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities are never the consequence of the trauma against the nose. In most of the cases, this also concerns type 3. This type as well as type 7 require the latero-lateral and anterior-posterior X-rays of the nasal bones in cases when the nasal pyramid is concurrently deformed. Types 1 and 2 in most of the cases are connected to trauma against the nose.

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Sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinoliths

Abstract

Sinoliths are rarely found calculi of paranasal sinuses. The most rarely they were found in the sphenoidal sinuses. At a routine Cone Beam CT exam of a 52-year-old male patient clinically silent small sinoliths were found bilaterally in the sphenoidal sinuses and a larger posterior ethmoidal sinolith was found on the right side. To our knowledge, such multiple sinuses involvement has not been previously reported.

Open access
Complex disposition of an enigmatic pathogen: rare electron microscopic manifestations in nasal rhinosporidiosis

Abstract

Rhinosporidiosis is a polypoidal disease of the nose and mucocutaneous tissues, the diagnosis of which is based on the presence of round bodies believed to be causative agents of the disease. Historically, the round body has been considered to be a sporangium of a fungus Rhinosporidium seeberi but without any convincing evidence. Round bodies contain numerous daughter cells, which are likely in the infective stage and are shed through a rupture in the wall of the round body. The released single-celled organisms eventually develop into round bodies on availability of suitable transformative trigger and favourable environment. Surgical excision of the polyp by electrocautery is the only effective treatment; however, recurrence may occur due to spillage of infective endospores in the surrounding mucosa during removal. There are many enigmatic features of the causative agent of this disease, which have been baffling researchers for more than a century. Here we present some rare electron microscopic and previously unreported features of the coat of the round body and single-celled organism in nasal rhinosporidiosis.

Open access
Computed-tomography volumetric study of the ethmoid labyrinth

Abstract

Morphological variability of paranasal sinuses is well known for endoscopic surgeons and anatomists alike. The ethmoid sinus is the most complex and variable of all paranasal sinuses, due to the fact that its development is not yet well known and is influenced by many factors. Volumetric studies of the sinuses have been made using dried skulls, cadaver heads and imaging studies, but there are still not sufficient data in order to name a standard value for each sinus. Few data can be found especially regarding the ethmoid sinus. In this paper, we measured the volumes of ethmoid lateral masses, and for anterior and posterior groups of cells, using imaging studies and a volumetric feature of our imaging studies. Results showed an average volume between 7.34 cm3 and 8.39 cm3 for the ethmoid lateral mass, between 4.33 cm3 and 4.92 cm3 for the anterior ethmoid and between 3.01 cm3 and 3.47 cm3 for the posterior ethmoid groups. We also found that the average volume of the anterior ethmoid occupies between 58-59% of the whole volume, while the posterior ethmoid occupies only 41-42% of this volume.

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Current insights in CSF leaks: a literature review of mechanisms, pathophysiology and treatment options

Abstract

A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs when there appears a fistula between the dura and the skull base and it is usually characterized by discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks may have many etiologies, the most common being trauma. The most common site of dural lesion is the cribriform plate of the ethmoid. Diagnosis can be achieved by a multitude of techniques, high-resolution computed tomography being the modality of choice and it may be completed with magnetic resonance imaging or cisternography. Treatment may be either conservative, either surgical, related to the cause, the site and the duration of CSF leak. Conservative treatment usually includes strict bed rest, elevated bed head and no straining, nose blowing or stretching, with resolution of the majority of traumatic CSF leaks in seven days. Surgical treatment consists of a variety of approaches (intracranial/extracranial, open/endoscopic). The future trend is represented by minimally invasive endoscopic approaches, with a success rate of almost 90%; however, open transcranial or extracranial interventions still have indications in the surgical management. CSF leaks must be correctly diagnosed and treated, because the risk of intracranial complications increases 10-fold when the leakage persists.

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Difficulties in the surgical management of head and neck cancer patient

Abstract

Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract are high morbidity bearing and life-threatening diseases, which require thorough care from diagnostic suspicion and confirmation to surgical and/or oncologic treatment and rehabilitation. Difficulties in managing head and neck cancers arise from delays in diagnosis and treatment caused by either patient-related factors or healthcare system-related factors. Tumor origin and stage determine whether surgical excision is feasible, the approach required for safe excision, the extent of functional and aesthetic sacrifice required to attain oncologic safety and the need for reconstructive surgery. A thorough and systematic preoperative risk versus benefits assessment to select potential surgical candidates and give realistic outcomes is important from both a medical and a legal point of view. Because tumors in the head and neck region frequently involve more than one system and sensory organ, potential loss of function from either the disease course, surgical or nonsurgical treatment should be taken into account form a quality of life perspective. Effective management of head and neck cancer patients requires the cooperation and combined effort of a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, physicians and other workers over a long period of time which, in the absence of a specialised head and neck cancer centre and guidelines, can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, and patient dissatisfaction.

Open access
Empty nose syndrome

Abstract

Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a clinical entity lacking consensual meaning, illustrating a rare nose surgery complication, particularly of nasal conchae surgery, which results in the destruction of the normal nasal tissue. In severe forms it may become debilitating; the inability in identification and appreciation of this syndrome turns detrimental to the patient. Physiopathology remains controversial, which probably implies disorders caused by excessive nasal permeability, affecting neurosensory receptors as well as the humidification functions and conditioning of inhaled air. Neuropsychological involvement is being suspected. Symptomatology is both variable and changeable, the most evident sign outlining paradoxical nasal obstruction. The diagnosis is based on a series of symptoms that need to be collected precisely, the objective examination that highlights the permeability of nasal fossae. The management is problematic; there are implemented a complete range of simple hygiene and humidification techniques of the nasal cavity and, for more severe cases, surgery is provided, regardless of technique, the surgery targeting partial filling of the nasal airways. Prevention is the most essential strategy along with basic conservative surgical techniques.

Open access
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: the relationship with nasal allergy

Abstract

Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) is a common event in clinical practice. The authors, all members of the Italian Society of Rhinology, analysed 100 cases from different ENT Departments. The causes of NLDO, according to the etiology, can be divided into two classes: idiopathic primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and secondary. The aim of the study was to describe an association between the sign and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis and a complaint of epiphora.

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Primary neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma in larynx: case report and literature review

Abstract

Background. Neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx represent a rare group of neoplasms characterized by pathological and biological heterogeneity. The histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis is the most important step in the appropriate management of these tumors and the prognosis varies according to histological types. Conventional anatomical and functional imaging can be complementary for diagnosis, staging and monitoring of treatment response. Material and methods. Here we report on a case of a laryngeal neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old man who was referred to our clinic for clinical reevaluation, diagnosis and treatment. The clinical presentation, the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination and management of this kind of tumor are highlighted. Conclusion. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are very aggressive neoplasms. Patients could benefit from surgery, but radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain the treatment of choice. Very low incidence of neuroendocrine tumors in the larynx and specifically very poor prognosis of neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma encouraged an extensive literature review.

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Case report. A rare case of triple-hit diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the parotid gland in a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary gland are rare, accounting for 2% of salivary gland tumors and 5% of all extranodal lymphomas. The clinical presentation is not particularly characteristic, a feature that usually leads to diagnostic and treatment delays.

CASE REPORT. We report a case of a parotid gland triple-hit diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) lymphoma associated with follicular lymphoma in a 76-year-old female patient with a unique personal history, which included a diagnosis of Sjogren Syndrome and exposure to a toxic working environment with pesticides. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are uncommon given the fact that most lymphoid malignancies are low-grade lymphomas, with MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas being the most common. Triple-hit DLBCL are extremely rare and the diagnosis can be challenging. Parotidectomy, as the first step, must be followed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry for final diagnosis and treatment.

CONCLUSION. This case highlights the fact that B-cell lymphoma in the salivary gland can be unrecognized due to unspecific symptoms and requires immunohistochemistry studies for confirmation. It is important to recognize triple-hit lymphoma due to its worse prognosis and differentiated treatment. Patients with Sjogren syndrome have additional risk factors for progression to lymphoma.

Open access