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Analysis of a Feder

Abstract

This paper covers an analysis in the cross section of sword fencing and the field of analytical mechanics and computer analysis. It aims to get answer to following questions in case of a normal blow with a feder on another feder: where are critical cross section/sections, where is the biggest stress, might the feder maybe break or not?

To inspect this question a model for the feder was created in a reliable, realistic, simple and closed form. Modeling a single blow acceleration and speed state at the chosen time will be calculated. Based on this input data equations and conclusions from the analytical mechanics were applied, where D’Alamberts principle is used. Results will be validated by finite element computer aided modeling and also applied on specified real life cases.

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The Bolognese Societates Armatae of the Late 13th Century

Abstract

The Bologna archives preserve the bye-laws of 24 „armed societies”, dating from between 1230 and the early 1300s, written in good notary Latin. Though known to exist in other Italian city-states, only few non-Bolognese armed society bye-laws are preserved. These armed societies had disappeared everywhere by the Late Middle Ages.

This article explores the function of these armed societies and the feudal law aspects of the bye-laws - was their function predominantly military, social or political? Why did they suddenly appear, and just as suddenly disappear? How did they fit into Bologna’s constitution - how did they relate to the civic authorities, the guilds?

How did these armed societies operate? Who were the members? What arms did they have? Did they participate in the warfare between the city-states, the battles of the Lombard League and the Holy Roman Empire, the struggles between the Emperor and the Pope, the feuds between the Ghibellines and the Guelphs?

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A fifteenth-century fencing tournament in Strasburg

Abstract

An undated paper from the archives of Strasburg contains a set of rules approved by fencing masters for a fencing tournament. The dating of this document is uncertain but could be established around 1470-71. A complete and unpublished transcription will be supplied and completed with a detailed study of the final set of rules but also the subset which received some modifications. Even if some key points remains obscure, it’s possible to find some comparison between this text and the contemporary knightly tournaments or the German Fechtschulen.

Open access