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Programs for Prevention and Management of Natural Disasters in the European Countries of The Larger Area of The Black Sea Basin

Abstract

The hazards that have cross-border consequences and represent a great problem for communities, become an obstacle to sustainable development and lead to disasters when combined with vulnerability and insufficient capacity to mitigate the risk. A short overview of research already implemented and in progress presents us a shift in systematic evaluation of the hazards and disasters at local and areal level. Hazard assessment of natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides and floods) on these scales can give results which can be directly used to take right decisions regarding preventive measures and plan effective actions of post-event management. The issue is widely recognized in the european union (eu) implicitly also in the black sea area, and a lot of efforts have already been made to mitigate the effects of disasters, obviously through the formation of numerous eu institution, established organizations and funded projects. The key elements for an effective mitigation of natural disasters are hazard identification and risk assessment, which must be based on scientifically grounded methodologies, reliable and accurate data. Successful resolution of the issues mentioned above will provide the ability to systematically assess natural disasters on regional and local scales, even in cross-border areas, by providing comparable hazard maps that will support the decision-making process in relation to mitigation measures required. The effective way of action against them is by providing applied research and technology transfer between partners in different countries by solving the problems such as lack of reliable information and lack of 'common ground' in the methodologies used to assess natural hazards and adopted procedures for mitigation.

Open access
Projections of Climate Suitability for Wine Production for the Cotnari Wine Region (Romania)

Abstract

Climate projections have revealed the perspective of changing the climate of the world's wine regions in the coming decades by diversifying heliothermal resources. Research in the Cotnari winegrowing region over the past decade has shown that the local climate has been affected by such developments especially after 1980. This research continues the series of studies on the climate of the Cotnari winegrowing region through projections of the climatic conditions for the 2020-2100 time period based on the RCP 4.5 scenario. Average annual temperature, warmest month temperature, precipitation during the growing season, length of the growing season and the Huglin, IAOe and AvGST bioclimatic indices for the 2020-2050, 2051-2080 and 2081-2100 time periods indicate the evolution of Cotnari area climate towards suitability for red wines and loss of suitability for the white wines. Climatic suitability classes for wine production, shift between 2020-2100 to the higher, cooler zone of the winegrowing region, narrowing down their surface and disappearing successively at the maximum altitude of 315 m asl. They are further replaced from the lower zone by classes specific to warmer climates. The suitability for white wines, specific to wine region, disappears at the maximum altitude of 315 m asl around 2060, being replaced by climate suitability for the red wine production. The average temperature of the growing season will exceed 19.5°C after 2080, becoming unsuitable for the production of red quality wines of Cabernet Sauvingnon variety. After 2050, in the lower zone of the winegrowing region the warm IH5 class, suitable for Mediterranean varieties such as Carignan and Grenache will install, as compared to temperate IH3 class which characterizes today the lower zone and allows the production of white wines of the local Feteasca albă, Grasa de Cotnari, Frâncușa and Tămâioasa românească varieties. The results suggest the need to develop strategies for adapting the viticulture of the Cotnari area to climate change.

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Regional Climate Change and Surface Waters

Abstract

The actual period marred by the global warming requires expanding our knowledge on the regional particularities of climate changes manifestations as consequences of global climatic changes. It was stated that within the limits of Republic of Moldova’s territory the pace of warming is much more accelerated than the global one. These consequences, in their turn, had led to the increase in degree of evaporation of surface waters, which had conditioned the doubling of still water’s pollution in the region (Lake Beleu). We consider that the obtained results could contribute to the adequate management of water resources in the new climatic conditions.

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Relationship between Environmental Features and Bird Assemblages in the Wetlands of Eastern Romania

Abstract

The avian habitats in Eastern Europe are poorly managed in last decades. It is of highly noteworthy influence importance to obtain more information regarding the link between birds’ presence and environmental features in wetlands to improve this poorly managed system. In our study we investigated the effects of the various habitat, landscape fragmentation and weather variables on the bird assemblages in Eastern Romania, described by diversity, species richness and abundance of non-passerine birds in wetlands. Poisson regression modelling revealed wetland area, wetland heterogeneity, proportion of open-water, density of patches and habitats, landscape shape and temperature conditions have a noteworthy influence on the bird assemblages (p<0,05). Our results suggest that the link between environmental features and birds’ assemblage, in our study areas could be dependent on the presence of the emergent vegetation (shelter / reproduction zones), the balance between open-water area (feeding / nesting zones) and also other variables, as the temperature, the presence of the human living facilities and/or intensive fish nurseries in the neighboring zones. Waterbird distribution and abundance in eastern part of Romania are driven by similar factors to other part of the world and this study could be one of the first published on the topic in a region where It is a lack of information on waterbirds ecology. Such studies would bring valuable information about the ecologic factors influencing the lives of the birds, in the areas that were not stueid before, resulting in better conservation efforts and wetland protection, in estern part of Europe.

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Salt and the Development of Human Settlements with Balnear and Climateric Potential within the Romanian Intra-Carpathian Space

Abstract

Deposit salt in Romania has extremely important reserves, considered even inexhaustible at the current exploitation level. The biggest salt resources are found in the intra-Carpathian arch, represented by Transylvania and Maramures. Most sources of salt outcrops are disseminated on the edge of the Transylvania Depression, in the diapir folds formed following salt migration. The salt mines – Turda, Praid, Ocna Mures, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu, Cojocna, Ocna Sugatag – represented an important source of incomes, reason for which important human settlements formed around them. All these localities have turned nowadays into balneal and climacteric resorts that fully use the beneficial effect of the atmosphere within galleries (Praid, Turda). The most important incomes from tourism are represented by the galleries of the mines of Turda (one of the 10 wonders of the modern world) and Praid. The balneal and climacteric resorts also developed around the salt lakes installed in the areas of collapsed mines: Sovata, Ocna Sibiu, Ocna Dej, Cojocna. The most well known human settlements and the most important balneal and climacteric resorts, implicitly, are disseminated on the external branch of the Transylvania Depression (Sovata, Praid, Ocna Mures, Baile Figa, Cojocna thermae, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu) and of the Maramures Depression (Ocna Sugata, Costiui, Vad). The oldest mining exploitation is situated at Figa (county of Bistrita-Nasaud) was founded around the year AD 3000. From this point of view, it is one of the oldest mining exploitations on Earth. The existence of the world-important archaeological site can invigorate the development of the surrounding localities, but mostly of the city of Beclean.

Open access
Soil Fertility Assessment of an High Natural Value Eligible Area in South-Eastern Transylvania

Abstract

As low-input environmentally friendly agricultural practices are currently associated with the delivery of a wide range of public goods and socioeconomic benefits, the strategy of European Union in mitigating climate change effects, protecting environment and ensuring public health has, among others, focused around preserving the High Natural Value (HNV) areas. About a quarter of the land in Romania is potentially covered by HNV farming and eligible for associated support payments, mostly along the chain of the Carpathian Mountains. Since soil systematic data on HNV area are scarce, recent research developments currently undertake to build up a first national HNV soil data base.

Soil fertility state in a HNV payment eligible area of south-eastern Transylvania was studied in seven in-depth dug profiles and seven additional shallow dug profiles. Soil samples were taken by genetic horizons as well as agrochemical samples from the upper soil layers (0-20 cm). Physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses revealed that the studied soils have a medium clayey loamy texture, good fertility and are subject to an adequate HNV management in the area, as the analytical values mostly range in favorable intervals for plant growth and nutrition. Thus, soil reaction is moderately acid up to slightly alkaline in the presence of carbonates, the soil organic matter, generally well mineralized, reaches fair levels and the high and very high cation exchange capacity ensure good conditions for plants growth and nutrition whilst nitrogen and potassium supply is adequate. Phosphorus is the only element in short supply – a situation often encountered in Romania unfertilized soils. Soil bulk density and total porosity are also favorable for root growth and spreading and plant nutrition. Microorganisms’ activity is diverse and is also adequate for plant nutrition.

Open access
Torrential Formations Arrangement by Introducing New Concepts to Limit Solid and Liquid Leakage

Abstract

The concept of sustainable development resulted from the conciliation of three aspirations: economic and social development, protection of the state of environment and increasing the importance of environmental policies. In order to protect the water quality, the catchments are arranged by organizational, agricultural and technical measures and works that need to be applied both on the slopes and in the drainage network. The paper presents new concepts of authors to limit the liquid and solid runoff that could affect water quality as an indispensable factor for life.

Open access
Analysis of forest fire and climate variability using Geospatial Technology for the State of Telangana, India

Abstract

The dynamic changes in the regimes of forest fires are due to the severity of climate and weather factors. The aim of the study was to examine the trend of forest fires and to evaluate their relationship with climate parameters for the state of Telangana in India. The climate and forest fire data were used and uploaded to the GIS platform in a specified vector grid (spacing: 0.3° x 0.3°). The data were evaluated spatially and statistical methods were applied to examine any relationships. The study revealed that there was a 78% incidence of forest fires in the months of February and March. The overall forest fire hotspot analysis (January to June) of grids revealed that the seven highest forest fire grids retain fire events greater than 600 were found in the north east of Warangal, east of Khammam and south east of Mahbubnagar districts. The forest fire analysis significantly followed the month wise pattern in grid format. Ten grids (in count) showed a fire frequency greater than 240 in the month of March and of these, three grids (in count) were found to be common where the forest fire frequency was highest in the preceding month. Rapid seasonal climate/weather changes were observed which significantly enhanced the forest fire events in the month of February onwards. The solar radiation increased to 159% in the month of March when compared with the preceding month whereas the relative humidity decreased to 47% in the same month. Furthermore, the wind velocity was found to be highest (3.5 meter/sec.) in the month of February and precipitation was found to be lowest (2.9 mm) in the same month. The analysis of Cramer V coefficient (CVC) values for wind velocity, maximum temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and precipitation with respect to fire incidence were found to be in increasing order and were in the range of 0.280 to 0.715. The CVC value for precipitation was found to be highest and equivalent to 0.715 and showed its strongest association/relationship with fire events. The significant increase in precipitation not only enhances the moisture in the soil but also in the dry fuel load lying on the forest floor which greatly reduces the fuel burning capacity of the forest. The predicted (2050) temperature anomalies data (RCP-6) for the month of February and March also showed a significant increase in temperature over those areas where forest fire events are found to be notably high in the present scenario which will certainly impact adversely on the future forest fire regime. Findings from this study have their own significance because such analyses/relationships have never be examined at the state level, therefore, it can help to fulfill the knowledge gap for the scientific community and the state forest department, and support fire prevention and control activities. There is a need to replicate this study in future by taking more climate variables which will certainly give a better understanding of forest fire events and their relationships with various parameters. The satellite remote sensing data and GIS have a strong potential to analyze various thematic datasets and in the visualization of spatial/temporal paradigms and thus significantly support the policy making framework.

Open access
Anticoagulant Activity of Some Ficus carica Varieties Extracts Grown in Algeria

Abstract

The hemostatic system is a complex balanced system that triggers clot formation to prevent blood loss after trauma. To block abnormal bleeding and maintain intravascular blood in a liquid state, in this study we investigated the possible anticoagulant effect of leaves and fruits extracts from some fig varieties grown in Algeria by determining the quick time (QT). The blood samples of the healthy individuals were used. For in vitro coagulation assays, the clotting times obtained in the presence of polyphenols in different extracts of F.carica samples indicate that they exert a high anticoagulant activity on the exogenous pathway of coagulation. Moreover, the polyphenolic extract of ‘Roudane’ variety presented a substantial increase in coagulation. Based on these preliminary results, it can be suggested that the fig polyphenolic extracts (FPE) of this varieties have anticoagulant activity that could be useful in preventing blood clots.

Open access
Assessment of Antioxidant effect of the essential oil and methanol extract of Centaurea dimorpha Viv. aerial parts from Algeria.

Abstract

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts of Centaurea dimorpha Viv. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents were Caryophyllene oxide (09.88%), limonene (5.73%), tetradecanoic acid (5.68%), spathulenol (5.44%), methyl hexadecanoate (4.45%), and α-pinene (03.08%). To our best knowledge this is the first study of essential oils from the aerial parts of Centaurea dimorpha growing in Algeria. Moreover the essential oil and methanolic extract were screened for their possible in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical-scavenging test. The findings showed that the percentage inhibition is 10.67 and 77.01 respectively at a concentration of 1mole/L.

Open access