One Micro-enterprises can benefit from state aid only when they demonstrate that, at the time of the on-line completion of the business plan, they meet cumulatively the eligibility criteria imposed by the funding authority. These criteria are minimal and binding for fund applicants and are conditioned as micro-enterprises: 1. to be organized either according to the Law on Commercial Companies no. 31/1990 or according to Law on co-operation no. 1/2005, republished; 2. are small and medium-sized enterprises; 3. are registered at the national trade registry office; 3. have integral private share capital; 4. have their registered office and / or working place; 5. the subject-matter of the activity is authorized and eligible according to the requirements of the aid scheme at the time of submitting the request for reimbursement; 6. the activity takes place in Romania; 7. does not have obligations to the consolidated budget of the state; 8. is not in bankruptcy, is not in dissolution, is not in judicial reorganization, is not in liquidation, is not subject to forced execution, is not in insolvency or bankruptcy, does not have temporary suspended activity or has operational closure.
The fiscal and budget policies developed over the last few years by policy makers emphasize fiscal relaxation measures in order to stimulate economic growth. Expected by employers and employees alike, they sometimes lead to results opposite to those pursued, especially if they do not take into account the particularities of the economic domains concerned and the social realities of the state. Due to the limited and often insufficient financial resources, it is necessary to stimulate those areas considered as generators of growth, and a good example in this sense is the research, development and innovation. In the context of the difficulties of ensuring an optimal level of public funding, it becomes increasingly obvious that legislative changes of fiscal and budgetary nature and how they can be implemented can be both a basis for the sustainability of public finances and for increasing competitiveness and a disturbing factor in the labor market and progress.
The moments of turning around in Cyprus’ history have long been a source of opportunity for various state actors on the international stage, mentioning, on the one hand, the main stakeholders, Greece, Turkey, on the other, the big players, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia. The way they have taken advantage of certain situations has made a visible influence on the fate of the island’s inhabitants, but has also been a source of dispute at several levels: economic, geopolitical, geostrategic etc.
Terrorism is an old phenomenon in human civilization. Terminologically, it comes from Latin, but this scourge also fully manifested itself in Roman civilization, throughout its history. This study seeks to fill a bibliographic gap on this criminal phenomenon, most studies of it starting with the Middle Ages, without any reference to Ancient Rome, which is unfair, especially since Rome was confronted with this phenomenon, which it defined terminologically and to which it responded with the necessary force, thus transforming its defence policy.
The first forms of terrorism emerged in Rome during the Kingdom, when, at the beginning of its political organization, Rome faced numerous terrorist manifestations, especially from outside the Roman state. The Gauls were, at the beginning of the Republic, genuine agents of terrorism in Rome through their plundering expeditions that caused real terror. Etruscan pirates were terrorists, too, for the Roman trade, the struggle of the plebeians and their withdrawal with barricades in order to obtain political rights meant real political terror at that time, then Spartacus’ revolt and his march which spread terror throughout Rome, the civil wars which bled Rome became genuine forms of internal terrorism, especially because of the assassination of Roman state leaders, as well as the corruption masterly unmasked by Cicero.
The forms of external terrorism were also present, the most notorious episode being the Punic wars, in particular the war of Hannibal, the most effective terrorist for Rome, the Dacians’ plundering expeditions in the Roman garrisons in Moesia, the battles with the Parthians and the Britons are as many forms of the terrorism that Rome faced during its history, which compelled it into creating new forces capable of responding to this new way of fighting. We believe that the Praetorian Guard, with all its units, was the most effective counter-terrorist force in combating the terrorist phenomenon strongly manifested in Rome. Therefore Rome, knowing the phenomenon, defined it most precisely, a definition that still applies today.
Lucia-Larissa Morar, Simona Boştină-Bratu and Alina Gabriela Negoescu
The aim of the article is to offer a variety of simple resources to foreign language teachers who consider their students’ creativity very important. The activities that we propose apply to all levels of the students and can be adapted to different grammatical structures and vocabulary according to the target students. We undertook research on freewriting in a foreign language class in sophomore cadet groups. At the center of this research, there are students’ products (free texts) and methods used in carrying out the writing activity (writing strategies and solutions for linguistic problems). Since writing has always been a difficult skill and an unpleasant task for most of the students, with this new approach they have found a way of enjoying their own pieces of writing.
The report points the need of studying the gender equality topic as an element of leadership formation of the future officers in the European Armed Forces. The analysis of the approaches to the inclusion of the subject in different disciplines will help to increase the sensitivity and the understanding of the military personnel to the questions related to the implementation of the gender equality in a military environment. The equal treatment of the both sexes and the opportunities for successful realization, based on their professionalism, would contribute to the harmonization of the working environment as a part of modern European policies.
Although a founding member of the European Union, Germany has been rather reluctant to assume a pre-eminent leadership role in the European military integration process, choosing to focus more on social and economic affairs. But following Brexit, Germany might be also called upon to act as an integration “engine” in the defence area. Using the case study method and the analysis of social documents, we argue that Germany’s high level of military integration allows this state to assume, alongside France, a leading role in the defence pursuits of the European Union.
The authors of the article highlight globalization trends in the current understanding of the security sector. They emphasize the mission and current requirements for the Slovak Armed Forces and preparation of future military experts in accordance with cosmopolitan policy of NATO and the EU. The authors also underline the need to address the key competences in terms of the relationship manager - leader and a professional soldier not only within the framework of university education, but also within the framework of lifelong and career education in the Slovak Republic.
Despite the extraordinary development of mobile communications, HF radio links have several advantages that make them unique in some application areas. Knowledge of HF noise is critical for the setup of a point to point HF communication. The paper presents HF noise measurements performed using a broadband antenna and Software Defined Radio equipment for signal acquisition, followed by offline signal processing. The recording has been split into several sub-bands of small bandwidth and for each sub-band the mean power has been computed, to find the sub-band with the lowest power. It might be assumed that the frequency band having the lowest power contains only noise. An analysis of the influence of sub-band size on the noise level hasalso been made. Measurements cover a large part of HF band and a large time interval to observe the noise behaviour.The paper analyses the noise level over short and long time periods, and over a large frequency band, and reports also simultaneous noise measurements in two locations in the western part of Romania, a dense urban one and a small town one, to highlight the differences caused by man-made noise of industrial type.
Fabiana Martinescu-Bădălan and Robert Stănciulescu
Since ancient times, skiing has been a way of moving, born out of a spirit of survival. The usefulness of this means of transportation has undergone numerous transformations with implications in terms of utility-applied aspect as well as in the area of sports and recreation. Military Physical Education, as a component of military training, includes utility-applied skiing, focusing in particular on cross-country skiing and ski touring. The modern battlefield requires military training in increasingly complex and new areas in this century, with a focus on the formation of well-trained and multispecialized armies of professionals, to the detriment of mass armies. Ski-mountaineering has increasingly evolved over the last few years, due to the possibility of reaching relatively fast on the ridge tips and lowering even faster, eliminating the barriers imposed by the relief. As the name calls it, it combines the techniques and procedures of skiing with mountaineering.