Susan Fournier and Shuba Srinivasan
This paper studies dynamic interdependence between economic growth, tourism, and inequalities in income and wealth in a small open economy. We build the dynamic model in an integrated Walrasian-general equilibrium and neoclassical-growth theory for a small open economy with multiple sectors and heterogeneous households in a perfectly competitive economy. The economy consists of one service sector which supplies non-traded services and one industrial sector which produces traded goods. We treat wealth accumulation and land distribution between housing and supply of services as endogenous variables. We show that the motion of the economy with J types of households is given by J nonlinear differential equations. We simulate the motion of the system with three groups of households. We also conduct comparative dynamic analysis with regards to the rate of interest, the price elasticity of tourism, the global economic condition, and the rich class’ human capital, and the rich class’ propensity to consume housing.
Charlotte Mason and Kaushik Jayaram
To minimize the potential loss of market share and profits, it is important to understand factors that drive cannibalization. Key brand variables for cannibalization risk concern how the new product compares in price and quality to existing products. Other relevant variables are the category, the type of product and a company’s distribution system. Also, whether a new product will coexist with or replace the existing product needs to be considered.
Estimating cannibalization risk should assess possible effects on company operations.
The positioning of new products needs to be planned and communicated carefully. Too many similar options may confuse the consumer. Brand and category factors as well as the consumption context can help managers mitigate the extent of cannibalization. Profit impact is more relevant than changes in sales figures. A lower-margin product cannibalizing a higher-margin product eats away at profits, but a higher-margin product cannibalizing a lower-margin one is potentially worth the cannibalization risk.
Tin Horvatinović and Silvije Orsag
In this paper we first present some developed theories of financing that firms might accord with in their development stages. The framework, assumptions and predictions of the capital structure of firms in each theory is shown. Afterwards, crowdfunding, as a fairly new source of financing that is increasing significance, is described and is differentiated on the basis of the type of return on investment for the outside investors. In recent literature there have been models that introduce crowdfunding in the framework of financing firms through their life cycle stages. We point the difficulty of encompassing crowdfunding in the mentioned models because of characteristics that are unique to it from the perspective of the investor and the firm. While it is not surprising that crowdfunding is used in development stages, these characteristics make it difficult to construct a model of financing firms that has traditional means of financing and crowdfunding.
The concept of sustainable development has undergone various developmental phases since its introduction. The historical development of the concept saw participation of various organizations and institutions, which nowadays work intensely on the implementation of its principles and objectives. The concept has experienced different critiques and interpretations over the time while being accepted in different areas of human activity, and the definition of sustainable development has become one of the most cited definitions in the literature. In its development, the concept has been adapting to the contemporary requirements of a complex global environment, but the underlying principles and goals, as well as the problems of their implementation, remained almost unchanged. Still, some goals have been updated, and the new goals were set. These goals are united in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals 2015 which outline the challenges that humanity has to fight not only to achieve sustainable development but to survive on Earth as well.
Susan Fournier and Shuba Srinivasan
In an increasingly risky socioeconomic environment, management needs to proactively consider brand-related risks. To understand brands as tools for risk management, they need to understand four types of brand risk: brand reputation risk, brand dilution risk, brand cannibalization risk and brand stretch risk.
Risk management is not a natural act for brand managers trained in astute execution of the 4 Ps, and contemporary market factors make this more challenging still. With an increasingly polarized society, it is almost impossible for brands to remain untouched by ideologies. In addition, the growth in digital advertising gives brand managers less control over advertising placement and context, and the mandate to keep growing adds executional risk.
The more exposed a brand is to brand risk, the more attention this topic will need in the boardroom. To shift a company’s marketing philosophy toward risk, it is important to define marketing competences in a broader way, to be self-critical and to be proactive.
Oliver Hupp, David Robbins and Susan Fournier
Like a stock portfolio, each relationship type offers a brand higher or lower growth opportunities and risks. The type of relationship is particularly relevant in brand crisis events. When a brand is hit by a crisis, it is not necessarily the most successful strategy to focus exclusively on protecting positive emotional relationships. At-risk relationships are affected more than others and can lead to a significant decline of brand value.
Our cases highlight that at-risk relationships represent a critical, but often overlooked, aspect of a brand’s relationship portfolio. Risks range from negative word of mouth that might have a negative impact on potential new customers to clear retention risk. Marketers should manage these risks proactively by identifying and investigating the nature of their customer relationships and by responding frankly and credibly to crisis events.
A standard method to evaluate new features and changes to e.g. Web sites is A/B testing. A common pitfall in performing A/B testing is the habit of looking at a test while it’s running, then stopping early. Due to the implicit multiple testing, the p-value is no longer trustworthy and usually too small. We investigate the claim that Bayesian methods, unlike frequentist tests, are immune to this “peeking” problem. We demonstrate that two regularly used measures, namely posterior probability and value remaining are severely affected by repeated testing. We further show a strong dependence on the prior probability of the parameters of interest.
Tuul Purevdorj and Susana Costa e Silva
The present study attempts to understand the use of three information processing mechanisms – cognitive, affective, and normative – to assess the quality of cashmere products made in Mongolia. For attaining the above aims, semi-structured interviews were conducted to test a framework that resulted from literature reviewed on country of origin (COO) effect and information processing mechanisms. Results demonstrate that for Business-to-Business (B2B) clients, the COO is an extremely relevant cue to evaluate the quality of cashmere. Conversely, most of the consumers do not seem to include the COO effect on their information processing and base their evaluation on four distinct product-related attributes: quality, brand, social status, and price. Results are relevant for the Mongolian cashmere industry, as well as for marketers interested in understanding what drives consumers of cashmere in their buying decisions. We also understand these findings to assist in improving the image of Mongolia as one of the world’s best manufacturers of cashmere.