The preliminary results of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of fully metamict samarskite dated at ~1500 Ma, which absorbed α-dose of 6.5 × 1017 α-decay mg-1, are reported after one-hour annealing at 673, 873, 1173 and 1373 K in argon atmosphere. Metamict minerals contain radioactive elements that degrade their crystal structures over geological time. All the Mössbauer spectra obtained can be fitted to two quadrupole doublets assigned to Fe2+ and Fe3+ in octahedral positions. The relative contribution of Fe2+ (Fe2+/Fe) reaches a minimum of 0.10 at 1173 K.
Piotr M. Kurzydło, Antoni T. Pędziwiatr, Bogdan F. Bogacz, Janusz Przewoźnik and Dariusz Oleszak
The spin reorientation process in the Tm2-xHoxFe14B series of compounds was studied using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy over the temperature range 5.2-320 K with a focus on the analysis of conical spin arrangement. Each compound was studied by precise Mössbauer scanning in the vicinity of the transition and during the transition. By applying computer simulations based on the simplified Yamada-Kato model, as well as on some literature data for R2Fe14B (R = Tm, Ho) compounds, the above series was selected for studies as it contains compounds with different spin arrangements (axial, planar, conical). It was a crucial requirement for obtaining unambiguous angular dependences when applying a simultaneous fitting procedure of Mössbauer spectra. Such an extended procedure was applied which allowed the temperature dependence of the angle describing the position of the magnetization vector to be obtained. The results were compared with those from theoretical simulations. The spin arrangement diagram was constructed. A conical spin arrangement was confirmed over a wide temperature range.
Ilona Jastrzębska, Wiktor Bodnar, Kerstin Witte, Eberhard Burkel, Paweł Stoch and Jacek Szczerba
In this work spinel series with the general formula Fe1-xMnxAl2O4 (where x = 0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) were synthesized and characterized with respect to their structure and microstructure. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to identify the phase composition that revealed a single phase spinel material. Rietveld refinements of the XRD patterns were carried out in order to determine the lattice and oxygen positional parameters of the spinel compounds. Mössbauer effect measurements were performed at room temperature to determine the local chemical environment of the Fe ions, their valences, and degrees of spinels inversion. It was shown that an increase in the Mn content led to a decrease in the ratio of Fe2+ to Fe3+. The results obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) were used to establish the chemical formulas of the synthesized spinels. Finally, the microstructure that was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a compact microstructure with an octahedral crystal habit.
Karolina Siedliska, Tomasz Pikula, Dariusz Chocyk and Elżbieta Jartych
The simple co-precipitation method was used to prepare AgxFeO2 delafossite with non-stoichiometric silver concentration in the range of x = 0.05-1. The obtained material was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. The structural and hyperfi ne interaction parameters were recognized in relation with decreasing silver concentration. The study revealed that the delafossite structure of AgxFeO2 was maintained up to x = 0.9; as the range of silver concentration was decreased to 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.8, a mixture of AgFeO2, Fe2O3 or/and FeOOH was formed.
Zbigniew Surowiec, Mieczysław Budzyński, Katarzyna Durak and Grzegorz Czernel
Small particles of magnetite, i.e. 7.5, 13.4 and 14.1 nm in diameter, were obtained by the method of co-precipitation. The crystal structure and size distributions were determined by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were tested by Mössbauer spectroscopy within the temperature range from 3 K to room temperature (RT). The Mössbauer study of magnetic nanoparticles reveals relaxation behaviour related to the existence of the superparamagnetic phase. The blocking temperature depends on the sizes of the nanoparticles and the ammonia concentration.
The Co1-xFex alloys where x ranges from 0.01 to 0.06 were measured at room temperature using transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS). The analysis of the obtained data allowed the determination of the short-range order (SRO), the binding energy Eb between two iron atoms in the studied materials using the extended Hrynkiewicz-Królas idea and the enthalpy of solution HCo-Fe of Fe in Co. The results showed that the Fe atoms dissolved in a Co matrix interact repulsively and the estimated value of HCo-Fe = -0.166(33) eV/atom. Finally, values of the enthalpy of solution were used to predict the enthalpy of mixing for the Co-Fe system. These findings were compared with corresponding data given in the literature, which were derived from calorimetric experiments and from the cellular atomic model of alloys described by Miedema.
Numerical simulations with the COREDIV code of JET H-mode discharges with 25 MW of auxiliary heating in the ITER-like wall (ILW) configuration with different impurity seedings – nitrogen (N), neon (Ne), argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr) – are presented. All simulations have been performed with the same transport model and input discharge parameters like auxiliary heating, volume average plasma density, confinement factor. Only the seeded impurity puff rate was changed in the calculations. It appears that for the considered heating power of 25 MW and relatively low volume electron average density <ne> = 6.2 × 1019 m−3, impurity seeding is necessary. It has been found that for every gas at the maximum level of the seeding rate, allowed by the code convergence, the power to the plate is reduced up to 2–4 MW, with electron temperature at the plate of about 2 eV, indicating semi-detached conditions in the divertor region. It should be noted, however, that in cases with low and medium Z impurity (N, Ne and Ar), tungsten radiation is a significant part of radiation losses and stays above 22–32% of the total energy losses, but for high Z impurity (Kr) it is reduced up to 10% of the total losses. The maximum of the Kr radiation is between the pedestal region and separatrix, showing that radiative mantle can be created, which might have a strong influence on the plasma parameters in the pedestal region.
Ahmed Ali Basfar, Majid Muneer and Omar Ahmed Alsager
Chlorophenols are compounds with high toxicity, poor biodegradability, and carcinogenic and recalcitrant properties. This work studies, for the first time, the destruction and detoxification of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in water using 60Co gamma radiation under different conditions including varied radiation doses, addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and varied pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC) confirmed a successful degradation of 2-CP to primarily yield phenol molecules and chloride anions. A radiation dose as low as 25 kGy achieved approximately 90% removal of 50–150 ppm of 2-CP in neutral water. However, the addition of a strong oxidizer such as H2O2 to 2-CP solutions reduced the required dose to achieve 90% removal to at least 1.3-fold. The reduction in radiation doses was also observed in acidic and alkaline media, reducing the required doses of 90% removal to at least 0.4-fold. It was imperative to study the toxicity levels of the oxidation by-products to provide directions for the potential applicability of this technology in water treatment. Toxicology Microtox® bioassay indicated a significant reduction in the toxicity of the degradation by-products and the detoxification was further enhanced by the addition of H2O2 and changing the pH to more acidic or alkaline conditions. These findings will contribute to the knowledge of the removal and detoxification of such challenging environmental contaminant and could be potentially applied to other biologically resistant compounds.
Zohreh Gholamzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Mirvakili, Amin Davari, Mosoumeh Alizadeh and Atieh Joz-Vaziri
The activation method for 99Mo production in comparison to fissionable target irradiation in research reactors is less preferable. Therefore, 99Mo yield using UO2SO4 samples was theoretically investigated. Computational results revealed admirable potential of the liquid samples for 99Mo production. Low-concentrated uranyl sulphate samples could easily be handled by the irradiation box. The sample geometry optimization improves thermal hydraulic conditions and production yield. The optimized geometry including only 0.12 g 235U produced 57Ci99Mo at end-of-irradiation (EOI) with a temperature peak of 72°C during the irradiation.
Anna Kowalik, Weronika Jackowiak, Julian Malicki, Małgorzata Skórska, Marta Adamczyk, Ewelina Konstanty, Tomasz Piotrowski and Kinga Polaczek-Grelik
Introduction. The rapid development of new radiotherapy technologies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or tomotherapy, has resulted in the capacity to deliver a more homogenous dose in the target. However, the higher doses associated with these techniques are a reason for concern because they may increase the dose outside the target. In the present study, we compared 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy to assess the doses to organs at risk (OARs) resulting from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons.
Material and methods. The doses to OARs outside the target were measured in an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom using thermoluminescence detectors (TLD 100) 6Li (7.5%) and 7Li (92.5%). The neutron fluence rate [cm−2·s−1] at chosen points inside the phantom was measured with gold foils (0.5 cm diameter, mean surface density of 0.108 g/cm3).
Results. The doses [Gy] delivered to the OARs for 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy respectively, were as follows: thyroid gland (0.62 ± 0.001 vs. 2.88 ± 0.004 vs. 0.58 ± 0.003); lung (0.99 ± 0.003 vs. 4.78 ± 0.006 vs. 0.67 ± 0.003); bladder (80.61 ± 0.054 vs. 53.75 ± 0.070 vs. 34.71 ± 0.059); and testes (4.38 ± 0.017 vs. 6.48 ± 0.013 vs. 4.39 ± 0.020). The neutron dose from 20 MV X-ray beam accounted for 0.5% of the therapeutic dose prescribed in the PTV. The further from the field edge the higher the contribution of this secondary radiation dose (from 8% to ~45%).
Conclusion. For tomotherapy, all OARs outside the therapeutic field are well-spared. In contrast, IMRT achieved better sparing than 3DCRT only in the bladder. The photoneutron dose from the use of high-energy X-ray beam constituted a notable portion (0.5%) of the therapeutic dose prescribed to the PTV.