A multiple rank modulation (MRM) scheme is proposed that provides better error performance, enhances the data rate and reduces the system demodulation complexity. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) scheme is a technique that uses several antennas at the transmitter and receiver to minimize error and optimize data speed. MRM is a novel technique that borrows from spatial modulation-MIMO (SM-MIMO) scheme. The basic idea of this scheme involves the transmitter receiving a group of bits and subdividing them into two blocks; rank index block and signal modulation block. The rank index bit block is used to select the rank to be activated and the rank selected contains at least one active transmit antenna (TA). The signal modulation bit block is encoded in a given modulation scheme for transmission. It is then transmitted through the activated rank that contains at least one active TA. The transmitted encoded signal modulation bit block is received through the receive antenna and a receiver. The receiver estimates a rank index and the transmitted symbol from the signal received. The signal modulation bit block is finally decoded. This paper addresses the performance of MRM scheme based on error performance to run cellular fifth generation (5G). We perform and present simulation results of MIMO systems employing MRM scheme to generate bit error rate (BER) of this system.
This approach examines the comparative relationship between persuasion at micro and macro-social level, under the framework of the comparative analysis method. In this sense, after identifying and presenting the concept of persuasion, the similarity of interpretation and persuasion techniques are emphasized. The study first addresses the epistemological and methodological aspect of the social connotations of persuasion. It has as main objectives to ensure the interpretation of the concept, to identify the strategies, to describe the mechanisms by which the persuasion in the public space is reconstructed and to discover the methods of resistance to this type of communication.
The usefulness of studying this type of communication results from the effects it has on the individual and its various inter-human relationships in the macro-social space.
It has long been considered that the environment can withstand all the pressure exerted by human activities on it: extensive agriculture, pesticide use, strong industrialization, noxious gas emissions into the atmosphere, toxic product discharge into lakes, rivers, seas and oceans, massive deforestation to obtain new areas for housing or agriculture. The result was environmental and soil degradation, increased water and/or air pollution, climate change, biodiversity loss, the disappearance of plant and/or animal species, the depletion of some natural resources. These environmental changes have begun to be studied by specialists in the field, who have raised a flag to irreversible environmental changes.
The concept of “sustainable development” arose at a time when environmental issues were at the heart of political debate: sustainable development is seen as a complex and difficult issue to solve because there is a diversity of interests of different states. International agreements and cooperation from the point of view of globalization and economic harmonization have also had as their object the issues of sustainable development, by launching the attempt to reconcile the economy with the environment.
The research started from the necessity of finding new ways to physical test the military students that are part of the military pentathlon 50 m race with obstacles team. The research methods used was the experiment method, using two groups: the first group was the control group and the second the experiment group. The experiment consisted in testing the students at: 50 m speed running, 800 m resistance running, push-ups, and specific testing like: 50 m swimming with obstacles, 8 km run in varied terrain.
The results of our investigation showed that calculation of the statistical significance of the differences between the averages of the two samples showed significant values at p>0.05, n-1, at the following parameters: running 800 m (t = 2.71> 2.13 - p = 0.05); push-ups (t = 3.01> 2.95 - p = 0.05); freestyle swimming 50m (t = 2.81> 2.13 - p = 0.05).
Frequency hopping is used in different communications systems for its robustness by providing frequency diversity against jamming and interfering signals. Successful detection and demodulation of a frequency hopping signal is dependent on proper tuning to transmit frequency and time synchronization of the burst. The sequence of hop frequencies is generally determined by a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence and time synchronization is achieved using synchronization preambles in the transmit burst. Successful acquisition of the hop frequency sequence could be achieved when at least a single burst’s data is successfully decoded at the receiver. This paper studies the serial search code acquisition which is the first step of synchronization for frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) system over Rician fading channel. Simulation results show the effect of fading channel on the code acquisition.
This paper presents a methodology to validate a virtual test procedure for vehicle gradeability performance. It is a test dedicated to both the civilian and military off-road vehicles, an 8 x 8 Armoured Personnel Carrier being selected for the purpose of the paper. TruckSim is the software used to implement the vehicle math model and the test procedure. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results for a 60 % gradient. The vehicle speed and the engine speed graphics, the statistical analyze, and the comparison between the simulation test animation and the experimental test movie are the methods applied to validate the virtual longitudinal slope test procedure.
Even though Muslim communities are virtually absent in most Eastern European societies new research shows that Islamophobia is more widespread in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. The existence of ‘Islamophobia without Muslims’ is surprising prima facie, but in fact this empirical pattern reflects the assumption of the contact hypothesis. In a nutshell, the contact hypothesis argues that an individual’s contact with members of an ‘outgroup’ is conducive to refute existing prejudice and stereotypes. We test the explanatory power of the contact hypothesis on both the individual and the societal level. Empirically, we draw our data from the European Social Survey (2014), which allows us to conduct a systematic comparison of Eastern and Western European societies and to account for other well-established social psychological theories of prejudice and stereotyping (e. g. Social Identity Theory, Integrated Threat Theory). Our empirical results show that people with less or no contact are more prone to Islamophobic attitudes. This pattern is characteristic for Eastern European countries as the sheer absence of Muslim communities in these societies turns out to be a relevant explanation for anti-Muslim prejudice. Eastern European citizens tend to have para-social-contacts with Muslims. In general, they rely on media and statements of (populist) politicians, to build their opinions about Muslims. Negative news coverage fueled by terrorist attacks shapes the prevailing image of all Muslims, media consumption therefore intensifies already existing anti-Muslim sentiments. As a result, Eastern European countries have been comparatively unpopular choices for migrants to settle.
This article examines the rise of the nascent intellectual and business bourgeois elites of the Czechs and Slovaks, focusing on the transformation of their cultural program into a political one. The article takes a comparative approach and investigates the relationship of political programs to prepolitical identities, zooming in on the parameters of a broader Czech and Slovak state identity, including the role of the center (Vienna, Pest, Prague, or Pressburg) or language (analyzing both its unifying and divisive roles in bridging the ideas and visions of the emerging local elites). As I argue, in the case of the Czech and Slovak nationalist movements, we can observe a transition from a prepolitical to the political program in the mid-19th century itself.
This paper focuses on the migration crisis from the perspective of Slovakia while examining the impact of the crisis on the last parliamentary elections in 2016. The migration/refugee crisis that started in 2015 played a significant role during the pre-electoral discourse and political campaigns. This paper has two main goals. The primarily goal is to apply the theory of securitization as proposed by the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute on the case study of Slovakia, and the secondary goal is to analyze the 2016 Slovak general elections. In here, I describe the securitization processes, actors, and other components of the case. Subsequently, I focus on a key element of this theory that is linked to the speech act. I evaluate Islamophobia manifestations in speech act and political manifesto of Slovak political parties. My source base includes the rhetoric of nationalist political parties such as Direction-SD (Smer-SD), Slovak National Party (Slovenská národná strana), We Are Family-Boris Kollár (Sme Rodina-Boris Kollár), and Kotleba-People’ Party Our Slovakia (Kotleba-Ľudová strana Naše Slovensko), all of which often apply anti-Muslim and anti-Islam rhetoric.