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D. D. Enchev

Abstract

The reactivity of the titled compounds towards electrophilic reagents has been investigated and new experimental evidences for the mechanism of the electrophilic addition reactions to 1,2-alkadienephosphonates have been reported

Open access

P. Petkova, P. Vasilev, Gulsah Celik Gul, M. Mustafa and I. Parushev

Abstract

The absorption coefficient of Bi12TiO20:AlI, Bi12TiO20:AlII, Bi12SiO20:P and Bi12SiO20:Al+P single crystals is measured in the spectral region of Urbach’s rule (1.52 – 2.92 eV) at room temperature. The parameters of electron-phonon interaction, Urbach’s energy and the constants of Urbach’s rule are calculated. The behavior of the acceptors Al3+ and P5+ in Urbach’s rule region has been considered.

Open access

Manthala Padannayil Noufal, Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny Abdullah, Puzhakkal Niyas and Pallimanhayil Abdul Raheem Subha

Abstract

Aim: This study evaluates the impacts of using different evaluation criteria on gamma pass rates in two commercially available QA methods employed for the verification of VMAT plans using different hypothetical planning target volumes (PTVs) and anatomical regions.

Introduction: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a widely accepted technique to deliver highly conformal treatment in a very efficient manner. As their level of complexity is high in comparison to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the implementation of stringent quality assurance (QA) before treatment delivery is of paramount importance.

Material and Methods: Two sets of VMAT plans were generated using Eclipse planning systems, one with five different complex hypothetical three-dimensional PTVs and one including three anatomical regions. The verification of these plans was performed using a MatriXX ionization chamber array embedded inside a MultiCube phantom and a Varian EPID dosimetric system attached to a Clinac iX. The plans were evaluated based on the 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm global gamma criteria and with three low-dose threshold values (0%, 10%, and 20%).

Results: The gamma pass rates were above 95% in all VMAT plans, when the 3%/3mm gamma criterion was used and no threshold was applied. In both systems, the pass rates decreased as the criteria become stricter. Higher pass rates were observed when no threshold was applied and they tended to decrease for 10% and 20% thresholds.

Conclusion: The results confirm the suitability of the equipments used and the validity of the plans. The study also confirmed that the threshold settings greatly affect the gamma pass rates, especially for lower gamma criteria.

Open access

Md Abdullah Al Mashud, M Tariquzzaman, M Jahangir Alam and GA Zakaria

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present the results of commissioning of Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (linac). The acceptance test and commissioning were performed for three photon beams energies 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV and for the multileaf collimator (MLC). The percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane beam profiles, head scatter factors (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor and MLC transmission factors were measured. The size of gantry, collimator, and couch isocenter were also measured.

Open access

Maria Atiq, Atia Atiq, Khalid Iqbal, Quratul ain Shamsi, Farah Andleeb and Saeed Ahmad Buzdar

Abstract

Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans.

Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%.

Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

Open access

D Janaki Sathya and K Geetha

Abstract

Automatic mass or lesion classification systems are developed to aid in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions present in the breast DCE-MR images, the systems need to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MR image interpretation in order to be successful for clinical use. A new classifier (a set of features together with a classification method) based on artificial neural networks trained using artificial fish swarm optimization (AFSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The basic idea behind the proposed classifier is to use AFSO algorithm for searching the best combination of synaptic weights for the neural network. An optimal set of features based on the statistical textural features is presented. The investigational outcomes of the proposed suspicious lesion classifier algorithm therefore confirm that the resulting classifier performs better than other such classifiers reported in the literature. Therefore this classifier demonstrates that the improvement in both the sensitivity and specificity are possible through automated image analysis.

Open access

Mohamed A. Elblbesy

Abstract

Interacting electromagnetic field with the living organisms and cells became of the great interest in the last decade. Erythrocytes are the most common types of the blood cells and have unique rheological, electrical, and magnetic properties. Aggregation is one of the important characteristics of the erythrocytes which has a great impact in some clinical cases. The present study introduces a simple method to monitor the effect of static magnetic field on erythrocytes aggregation using light transmission. Features were extracted from the time course curve of the light transmission through the whole blood under different intensities of the magnetic field. The findings of this research showed that static magnetic field could influence the size and the rate of erythrocytes aggregation. The strong correlations confirmed these results between the static magnetic field intensity and both the time of aggregation and sedimentation of erythrocytes. From this study, it can be concluded that static magnetic field can be used to modify the mechanisms of erythrocytes aggregation.

Open access

Karthick Raj Mani, Suresh Poudel and K J Maria Das

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the cardio-pulmonary doses between Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) and Free Breathing (FB) technique in left sided breast irradiation.

Materials & Methods: DIBH CT and FB CT were acquired for 10 left sided breast patients who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without nodal irradiation. Three fields single isocenter technique were used for patients with node positive patients along with two tangential conformal fields whereas only two tangential fields were used in node negative patients. All the critical structures like lungs, heart, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated in both DIBH and FB scan. Both DIBH and FB scans were fused with the Dicom origin as they were acquired with the same Dicom coordinates. Plans were created in the DIBH scan for a dose range between 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Critical structures doses were recorded from the Dose Volume Histogram for both the DIBH and FB data set for evaluation.

Results: The average mean heart dose in DIBH vs FB was 13.18 Gy vs 6.97 Gy, (p = 0.0063) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB technique. The relative reduction in average mean heart dose was 47.12%. The relative V5 reduced by 14.70% (i.e. 34.42% vs 19.72%, p = 0.0080), V10 reduced by 13.83% (i.e. 27.79 % vs 13.96%, p = 0.0073). V20 reduced by 13.19% (i.e. 24.54 % vs 11.35%, p = 0.0069), V30 reduced by 12.38% (i.e. 22.27 % vs 9.89 %, p = 0.0073) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB. The average mean left lung dose reduced marginally by 1.43 Gy (13.73 Gy vs 12.30 Gy, p = 0.4599) but insignificantly with DIBH as compared to FB. Other left lung parameters (V5, V10, V20 and V30) shows marginal decreases in DIBH plans compare to FB plans.

Conclusion: DIBH shows a substantial reduction of cardiac doses but slight and insignificant reduction of pulmonary doses as compared with FB technique. Using the simple DIBH technique, we can effectively reduce the cardiac morbidity and at the same time radiation induced lung pneumonitis is unlikely to increase.

Open access

Ali Shahin and Wesam Bachir

Abstract

Optical phantoms are widely used for evaluating the performance of biomedical optical modalities, and hence, absorbing and scattering materials are required for the construction of optical phantoms. Towards that aim, new readily available and inexpensive black Ink (Parker) as a simulating absorber as well as Intralipid 20% as a simulating scatterer are thoroughly investigated. Broadband Transmittance and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements were performed in the visible range 400 – 700 nm. Optical properties of the phantom materials are determined. Analytical expressions for absorption and scattering coefficient related to the concentrations and wavelength of the Parker ink and Intralipid are also presented and discussed. The results show nonlinear trend in the absorption coefficient of Parker ink over the examined visible spectral range. Furthermore, Intralipid scattering coefficient variation across the mentioned spectral range shows a tissue-like scattering trend. The findings demonstrate the capability of the broadband transmission and diffuse reflectance for characterizing tissue-like phantom materials in the examined spectral range.

Open access

Behrouz Rasuli, Raheleh Tabari Juybari, Meysam Forouzi and Mohammad Ghorbani

Abstract

Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate patient dose in pelvic and abdomen x-ray examinations. This work also provided the LDRLs (local diagnostic reference levels) in Khuzestan region, southwest of Iran to help establish the NDRLs (national diagnostic reference levels).

Methods: Patient doses were assessed from patient’s anatomical data and exposure parameters based on the IAEA indirect dosimetry method. With regard to this method, exposure parameters such as tube output, kVp, mAs, FFD and patient anatomical data were used for calculating ESD (entrance skin dose) of patients. This study was conducted on 250 standard patients (50% men and 50% women) at eight high-patient-load imaging centers.

Results: The results indicate that mean ESDs for the both pelvic and abdomen examinations were lower than the IAEA and EC reference levels, 2.3 and 3.7 mGy, respectively. Mean applied kVps were 67 and 70 and mean FFDs were 103 and 109, respectively. Tube loadings obtained in this study for pelvic examination were lower than all the corresponding values in the reviewed literature. Likewise, the average annual patient load across all hospitals were more than 37000 patients, i.e. more than 100 patients a day.

Conclusions: The authors recommend that DRLs (diagnostic reference levels) obtained in this region, which are the first available data, can be used as local DRLs for pelvic and abdomen procedures. This work also provides that on-the-job training programs for staffs and close cross collaboration between physicists and physicians should be strongly considered.