Tomasz Strzelecki, Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz, Michał Strzelecki, Eugeniusz Sawicki and Łukasz Maniecki
This article presents the results of numerical simulations of seepage through the body of the dam and the reservoir bed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the seepage stability during a flood as well as the impact on seepage stability of the diaphragm wall and gravel columns, on which the dam body is founded in selected segments. Simulations were conducted for three different locations, and the following 3D models of the dum were prepared:
–a model containing the front and right-bank part of the dam, for which no diaphragm wall, gravel columns and drainage ditch were provided for
–a model of a segment of the right-bank dam including a diaphragm wall, drainage ditch and gravel columns under the dam (two variants with differing diaphragm wall lengths)
–a model of the water dam segment accounting for gravel columns and a drainage ditch, but without a diaphragm wall. In the case of founding on gravel columns, the base was modelled as an anisotropic medium in terms of seepage properties, macroscopically equivalent to the actual soil medium.
The numerical model utilises the finite element method. The geometry of the dam and geological substrate was defined in the GIS tools in the form of a 3D model of the terrain and geology of the substrate.
Calculation of pullout capacity of anchoring concrete cylindrical block by finite element method is carried out. 3D model of the block assumes its free rotation. Alternative solutions with one and two pulling forces attached at different heights of the block are considered. Dependency of the ultimate pulling force on the points of its application, the block’s embedment depth as well as contact friction are investigated. Results of FE analysis and simple engineering estimations are compared. The maximum pullout resistance results from FE analysis when the rotation of the block is prevented.
Diaphragm walls are deep embedded earth retaining structures. They also act as a part of the foundation. Geotechnical codes of practice from various countries provide procedures for the analysis of deep foundations. Not many standards are available that directly regulate the analysis of diaphragm walls. This paper compares the analysis of diaphragm walls performed using the foundation codes of different countries. Codes including EN 1997-1, BS 8002, BS 8004, BS EN 1538, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, AS 4678, AS 5100.3, Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual, CAN/CSA S6, IS 9556 and IS 4651 are chosen for the study. Numerical studies and calculations are done using the finite element software Plaxis 2d. Comparative study is performed based on the values of displacements and the forces developed. Study also evaluates the effect of differences in partial safety factors. The outcome of research emphasises the need for development of comprehensive analysis procedures.
Łukasz Herezy, Dariusz Janik and Krzysztof Skrzypkowski
The study summarises the operating characteristics of the powered roof support (shield) used in an automated plough system. Investigated longwall support units were controlled automatically or by section engineers and positioned in the ‘saw tooth’ configuration with respect to the longwall face (automatic mode) or linear to the face. Shield pressure data have been analysed in order to identify the impacts of particular factors on the pressure increase profiles. The analysis was supported by the Statistica software to determine the statistical significance of isolated factors. Equations governing the leg pressure at the given time instant were derived and the roof stability factor ‘g’ was obtained accordingly, recalling the maximal admissible roof displacement method recommended by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). In the current mining practice, its values are used in monitoring of strata behaviour as indicators of shield–strata interactions, particularly in the context of roof control in longwall mining. It is vital that the method used should be adapted to the actual conditions under which the longwall is operated. In the absence of such adaptations, there will be major discrepancies in results. The conclusions section summarises the current research problems addressed at the Department of Underground Mining, in which the support pressure data in longwall operations are used. The first aspect involves the delineation of deformations of a longwall main gate about 100 m ahead of the face. The second issue addressed involves the risk assessment of roof rock caving or rock sliding in the tail gate. Another aspect involves the standardisation of local conditions to support the methodology of interpreting shield–strata interactions in the context of work safety. These methods are being currently verified in situ.
This article shows the mathematical method to determine the lateral stress on the shaft and toe resistance of pile using the new approach. The method was originally invented by Meyer and Kowalow for the static load test. The approximation curve was used for the estimation of both settlement curve and toe resistance curve of the pile. The load applied at the head of the pile is balanced by the sum of two components: the resistance under the toe of the pile and the skin friction. Therefore, the settlement curve is compilation of two factors: the skin friction curve and the resistance under toe curve. The analysis was based on the verification of the methods using laboratory experiments, that is, static load tests. The results of the research allowed to determine the relationship between parameters of the Meyer–Kowalow curve. On the basis of the relationships, it was possible to determine the skin friction and the toe resistance of the pile. Mathematical analysis of curve parameters allowed to determine the influence of the toe resistance on the settlement.
The authors present possible applications of thermal data as an additional source of information on an object’s behaviour during the technical assessment of the condition of a concrete surface. For the study one of the most recent propositions introduced by Zoller + Fröhlich company was used, which is an integration of a thermal camera with a terrestrial laser scanner. This solution enables an acquisition of geometric and spectral data on the surveyed object and also provides information on the surface’s temperature in the selected points. A section of the dam’s downstream concrete wall was selected as the subject of the study for which a number of scans were carried out and a number of thermal images were taken at different times of the day. The obtained thermal data was confronted with the acquired spectral information for the specified points. This made it possible to carry out broader analysis of the surface and an inspection of the revealed fissure. The thermal analysis of said fissure indicated that the temperature changes within it are slower, which may affect the way the concrete works and may require further elaboration by the appropriate experts. Through the integration of a thermal camera with a terrestrial laser scanner one can not only analyse changes of temperature in the discretely selected points but on the whole surface as well. Moreover, it is also possible to accurately determine the range and the area of the change affecting the surface. The authors note the limitations of the presented solution like, inter alia, the resolution of the thermal camera.
Stanisław Duży, Grzegorz Dyduch, Wojciech Preidl and Grzegorz Stacha
Adits played an important role in the hydrotechnical infrastructure for centuries. Initially, they were used mainly to drain wetland and supply water to the population. There were also inherent in the conduct of mining activities. They were used as exploratory, development and supply headings. Their usual function was to drain, ventilate and transport, and after the cessation of mining they became important elements of the hydrotechnical infrastructure in the transformed mining areas. The article presents issues related to the revitalization of the Main Key Hereditary Adit and Friedrich Adit as essential for the areas in which they are located. Both are hydraulic structures with the possibility of adaptation for tourism purposes. The need to consider some technical activities to be undertaken in this type of objects was pointed out, not only including aspects related to their proper protection so that they can continue to safely perform their function, but also to the preservation of their historical values. Due to their age and the method of drilling used in them, those headings are often included in the list of monuments and protected by law.
In many cases of monitoring or load testing of hydrotechnical structures, the measurement results obtained from dial gauges may be affected by random or systematic errors resulting from the instability of the reference beam. For example, the measurement of wall displacement or pile settlement may be increased (or decreased) by displacements of the reference beam due to ground movement. The application of surveying methods such as high-precision levelling, motorized tacheometry or even terrestrial laser scanning makes it possible to provide an independent reference measurement free from systematic errors. It is very important in the case of walls and piles embedded in the rivers, where the construction of reference structure is even more difficult than usually. Construction of an independent reference system is also complicated when horizontal testing of sheet piles or diaphragm walls are considered. In this case, any underestimation of the horizontal displacement of an anchored or strutted construction leads to an understated value of the strut’s load. These measurements are even more important during modernization works and repairs of the hydrotechnical structures.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibilities of using modern measurement methods for monitoring of horizontal displacements of an excavation wall. The methods under scrutiny (motorized tacheometry and terrestrial laser scanning) have been compared to classical techniques and described in the context of their practical use on the example hydrotechnical structure. This structure was a temporary cofferdam made from sheet pile wall. The research continuously conducted at Wroclaw University of Science and Technology made it possible to collect and summarize measurement results and practical experience. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages of both analysed methods and presents a comparison of obtained measurement results of horizontal displacements. In conclusion, some recommendations have been formulated, which are relevant from the point of view of engineering practice.
The idea of strengthening the foundation using injection piles lies in transferring loads from the foundation to the piles anchorage in existing structure and formed in the soil. Such a system has to be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile onto the soil. Pile structure often reinforced with steel element has to also be able to transfer such a loading. According to the rules of continuum mechanics, the bearing capacity of such a system and a deformation of its individual elements can be determined by way of an analysis of the contact problem of three interfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different couples of materials. Those surfaces create: pile-foundation anchorage, bonding between reinforcement and material from which the pile is formed and pilesoil interface. What is essential is that on the contact surfaces the deformation of materials which adhere to each other can vary and depends on the mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. Engineering practice and experimental research point out that the failure in such structures occurs at interfaces. The paper is concentrating on presenting the experiments on interaction between cement grout and various types of steel reinforcement. The tests were conducted on the special low pressure injection piles widely used to strengthen foundations of already existing structures of historical buildings due to the technology of formation and injection pressure.
Geostatistical methods make the analysis of measurement data possible. This article presents the problems directed towards the use of geostatistics in spatial analysis of displacements based on geodetic monitoring. Using methods of applied (spatial) statistics, the research deals with interesting and current issues connected to space-time analysis, modeling displacements and deformations, as applied to any large-area objects on which geodetic monitoring is conducted (e.g., water dams, urban areas in the vicinity of deep excavations, areas at a macro-regional scale subject to anthropogenic influences caused by mining, etc.). These problems are very crucial, especially for safety assessment of important hydrotechnical constructions, as well as for modeling and estimating mining damage.
Based on the geodetic monitoring data, a substantial basic empirical material was created, comprising many years of research results concerning displacements of controlled points situated on the crown and foreland of an exemplary earth dam, and used to assess the behaviour and safety of the object during its whole operating period. A research method at a macro-regional scale was applied to investigate some phenomena connected with the operation of the analysed big hydrotechnical construction.
Applying a semivariogram function enabled the spatial variability analysis of displacements. Isotropic empirical semivariograms were calculated and then, theoretical parameters of analytical functions were determined, which approximated the courses of the mentioned empirical variability measure. Using ordinary (block) kriging at the grid nodes of an elementary spatial grid covering the analysed object, the values of the Z* estimated means of displacements were calculated together with the accompanying assessment of uncertainty estimation – a standard deviation of estimation σk. Raster maps of the distribution of estimated averages Z* and raster maps of deviations of estimation σk (in perspective) were obtained for selected years (1995 and 2007), taking the ground height 136 m a.s.l. into calculation. To calculate raster maps of Z* interpolated values, methods of quick interpolation were also used, such as the technique of the inverse distance squares, a linear model of kriging, a spline kriging, which made the recognition of the general background of displacements possible, without the accuracy assessment of Z* value estimation, i.e., the value of σk. These maps are also related to 1995 and 2007 and the elevation.
As a result of applying these techniques, clear boundaries of subsiding areas, upthrusting and also horizontal displacements on the examined hydrotechnical object were marked out, which can be interpreted as areas of local deformations of the object, important for the safety of the construction.
The effect of geostatistical research conducted, including the structural analysis, semivariograms modeling, estimating the displacements of the hydrotechnical object, are rich cartographic characteristic (semivariograms, raster maps, block diagrams), which present the spatial visualization of the conducted various analyses of the monitored displacements.
The prepared geostatistical model (3D) of displacement variability (analysed within the area of the dam, during its operating period and including its height) will be useful not only in the correct assessment of displacements and deformations, but it will also make it possible to forecast these phenomena, which is crucial when the operating safety of such constructions is taken into account.