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Open access

Hans Manee, Olena Korotkykh, Svetlana Kalinichenko, Tatiana Antushev and Natalia Dubinina

Abstract

Current treatment and prevention of chronic rhinitis (CR) and chronic tonsillitis (CT) highlights the need for clinical trials in the respective laboratory model, of better options, including new medicaments. Therefore, to understand CR and CT via the laboratory model, the chronic pro-inflammatory process was simulated in laboratory animals (“Chinchilla” rabbits) using the reference Staphylococcus aureus strain 209P (ATCC 6538-P). Initial sensitizing of the laboratory animals with the inactivated causative agent and subsequently infecting the required area with the reference-strain made it possible to work out a reproducible model of both chronic rhinitis and chronic tonsillitis. Adequacy of CR and CT development was confirmed by the results of microbiological and pathomorphological investigations. The proposed laboratory model can be used to solve theoretical and practical medical current issues, as well as pharmacological topical problems.

Open access

Nazar Kostyshyn, Mechyslav Grzegotsky and Marta Servetnyk

Abstract

Whole body vibration involves the exposure of the entire human body to direct contact with environmental vibration. Chronic mechanical vibrations, combined with the physical attributes of the human body, can amplify the incoming energy and present the potential for negative health effects. Vibration exposure can, thus, result in adverse health effects such as spinal injuries, abdominal neurological and cardiovascular disorders. These can manifest indirectly as an accident causal factor. The aim of our research is to study the impact of vibration fluctuations of different frequencies on the structural and functional condition and mechanisms of bone remodelling. An experimental study was, therefore, conducted on mature male rats. For assessment of bone metabolism in the venous blood of rats, osteocalcin level was determined, while fragments of rats’ lumbar vertebrae were subsequently taken for histologic examination. Our work revealed that with the increase of vibration frequency, an increase of osteocalcin level in the blood of experimental animals comes about. Moreover, we noted after terminating vibration fluctuations on the 56th day of the experiment, osteocalcin levels are gradually reduced. In addition, in the course of histological study of specimens of lumbar vertebrae bone tissue, even as early as of the 28th day of the experiment, evidences of acute impairment of the bone tissue and initial signs of its remodelling are clearly traced. Indeed, on the 56th day, the remodelling processes represented by enhanced regeneration in the zone of the cartilage plate, increased in proliferation activity. We also saw hyperplasia of chondrocytes, hypertrophy of the respective zones of cartilage tissue, zones of forming immature bone tissue on the areas of previous damage, focal replacement fibrosis and angiomatosis. Hence, with increasing vibratory acceleration of 0,5 g, the rate of bone metabolism grows, osteoblast activation processes are accelerated and the impairment of collagen and calcium loss is increased. All this leads subsequently to the occurrence of osteoporosis.

Open access

Khama’al Hussein Abod Al-Khafaji, Mohammed Noori Al-Dujaili and Arshad Noori Ghani Al-Dujaili

Abstract

Noggin (NOG) is a protein that is involved in the development of many body tissues, including nerve tissue, muscles, and bones. The NOG protein plays a role in germ layer-specific derivation of specialized cells. Via NOG, the formation of neural tissues, the notochord, hair follicles, and eye structures arise from the ectoderm germ layer, while noggin activity in the mesoderm gives way to the formation of cartilage, bone and muscle growth. In the endoderm, NOG is involved in the development of the lungs.

NOG dimerizes by a core body, while two pairs of strands extend from it preceding by an N-terminal segment (called a clip segment) with approximately 20 amino acids. This clip twists around the BMP ligand and obstructs the growth factor surfaces from binding to both BMP receptors type I and type II. NOG binding to some BMPs inhibits these from combining and thus activating receptors of BMP, therefore, blocking non-Smad and Smad-dependent signaling.

The anti-proliferative noggin has particular effects in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) that are exposed to specifically down regulated hypoxia. This occurs together with the BMP4 up-regulation levels of protein, and this imbalance between NOG and BMP4 consequence results in the activation and development of PAH disease. Our study consists of numerous examinations so as to explore new biomarkers in order to determine onset of PAH, and to discover the relationship between NOG serum level and gender, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), smoking, types of PAH primaries and secondaries, as well as their grade.

Open access

Senar Aydin, Mehmet Emin Aydin, Fatma Beduk, Arzu Tekinay and Havva Kilic

Abstract

A novel micro-extraction technique for a rapid and sensitive analysis of diclofenac (DCF) in water samples has been developed. DCF was derivatized and extracted simultaneously using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid micro-extraction (VALLME) prior to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The effects of extraction solvent volume, extraction and derivatization time and ionic strength of the sample were studied using 23 factorial experimental design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: 200 μL of chloroform, 25 μL of N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatization reagent, vortex extraction and derivatization time 5 min at 3000 rpm. The extraction recovery for different fortification levels was 98 %. Also, the proposed micro-extraction method exhibited results comparable with the solid phase extraction of real water samples. The proposed one-step VALLME and derivatization method is simpler and faster than the conventional extraction and derivatization methods used for the determination of DCF in real water samples.

Open access

Ábrám Zoltán

Abstract

Fodor József (1843–1901) is the founder of Hungarian hygiene who established the second hygiene department and hygiene institute in the world; he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He lived in the era of great microbiological discoveries, and his rich and multidisciplinary work has opened up new directions and approaches in science. For a short period of time he was professor at the newly established university from Cluj (Kolozsvár), later he had important contributions to the Hungarian public health act of 1876. His entire professional career represents a very special model by the messages left behind. He was proposed for Nobel Prize in medical (biological) sciences, but he suddenly died on 20 March 1901.

Open access

Abraham P. Buunk and Yvonne A. B. Buunk-Werkhoven

Abstract

Aims: The aim was to examine how sense of defeat and social status are related to perceived oral health, tooth brushing, and oral health-related quality of life among Dutch male forensic psychiatric patients.Methods: The sample consisted of 40 hospitalized forensic psychiatric patients participated. The questionnaire included five questions about moments of tooth brushing, scales for sense of defeat and subjective social status, a scale from 1 to 10 for perceived oral health and a Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14).Results: The results showed that on the basis of a factor analysis of the OHIP-14, three meaningful scales could be constructed, i.e., functional limitations, social discomfort, and psychological inhibitions. The major results revealed that sense of defeat correlated negatively with tooth brushing after breakfast and before going to sleep, positively with social discomfort because of one’s teeth, mouth, or dentures, not with functional limitations, and negatively with self-perceived oral health. Social status correlated positively with tooth brushing before going to sleep, with psychological inhibitions, but not with social discomfort, and neither with functional limitations.Conclusions and implications: The major conclusion is that sense of defeat and social status have theoretically meaningful relations with oral self-care and oral health. Oral health professionals working with male forensic psychiatric patients should be sensitive to the sense of defeat these patients may experience, and to the fact that this may be associated with problems with their oral health and with a lack of oral self-care.

Open access

Nuraliah

Abstract

One crucial period of woman’s development period is when the age of puberty is begun, indicated by menarche. The age of menarche might be related to a certain sexual that one having earlier menarche is potential to do premarital sexual behaviors. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between the age of menarche and premarital sexual behaviors. This research is quantitative research employing secondary data: The Survey of Indonesian Adolescents’ Reproductive Health (SKRRI, Survey Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja Indonesia) in 2012. The data design hired was the cross sectional survey. Women at the age of 15-24 years-old were chosen as the research population. There were 7,367 samples involved, taken from both urban and rural areas. The dependent variable of this research was the premarital sexual behaviors categorized into non risky behaviors (holding hands) and risky behaviors (kissing, petting, and having sexual intercourse); while the independent variable was the age of menarche. The external variables of this research consisted of age, education, and domicile. This researcher used the univariable analysis, bivariable analysis utilizing the chi-square, and multivariable analysis applying the logistic regression with the confidence level of 95% and value of p = 0.005. The results show that the average age of menarche is thirteen years-old and premarital sexual behaviors are mostly performed by urban women. Based on the results of relationship test, the age of menarche does not have any significant relationship with premarital sexual behaviors. However, there is a significant relationship between premarital sexual behavior with the age and domicile.

Open access

Dorina Bedhia

Abstract

Imagination and images refer jointly ability to imagine. Imaginative therapies operate all within an almost real context. In therapeutical experience, the individual goes through almost real experiences before going through the events in reality, acts before acting in reality and this provokes changes in somatic level. The almost real dimension, namely the imaginative dimension, influences the individual, or rather the individual, starting from the imagination changes himself, his beliefs and perceptions. Imagination as therapeutic intervention is sometimes more efficient and more valuable than other therapies. It is also effective in treating a range of psychological symptoms such as insomnia, depression, obesity, cronich pain, various phobias, anxiety and panic , somatic problems. Given the fact that the images are effective in treating a range of psychological symptoms, including depression we want to see if imaginative techniques help improve symptoms of postpartum depression. This case was treated at University Hospital for Obstetric and Gynecology "Koco Gliozheni" Tirane (Albania). A 35 years young mother showed depressive symptoms associated with post-partum condition, as determined by semi-structured interviews and relevant test EDPS, also by psychiatric consultations. Besides the daily psychological support I proposed some imaginative techniques like self-watching, flooding, guided imagery. Imaginative activity in general, in the case in question, was a valid instrument of the difficulties in everyday life. The patient learned to visualize problematic elements of each situation and this resulted an efficient approach. Imagination helped identify schematic components that have contributed to the formation of inappropriate thoughts and exaggerated ideas. It helped in recognition of the patient's emotional reality and modifying this emotional reality. The patient uses images to manage situations different daily life even by telephone follow up. This case study shows that imagery techniques, elaborated through images, facilitate recovery and provide us with a functional interpretation of the event and its consequences. Working with images intended to make the patient able to withstand and manage the pain that bring different situations and to integrate it in the history of personal life.

Open access

Margarita Stankova and Polina Mihova

Abstract

In the medical profession, communicating bad news about a malignant formation is often associated with experience, obstacles, and problems faced by the medical professionals and related to the communication with the patient. Our survey included 232 medical specialists - doctors and nurses with diverse internship in the profession and working in Bulgarian healthcare facilities. It aimed to find: (i) the most common difficulty in communicating the bad news to cancer patients, (ii) the most difficult aspects of that information, and (iii) the specific words the medical professionals prefer to avoid when communicating the bad news. Also, the medical specialists were asked about the factors with the largest interference with the disclosure of the bad news to the patients. The survey results show that only 66% of the medical professionals are ready to respond directly and definitively to the question from the patient if he/she has cancer. Almost all of the surveyed medical specialists believed that the most difficult part of communicating the bad news was related to the prognosis of the disease and the survival expectancy; many of the medical professionals preferred to avoid the word "cancer", and the fatality of the disease was the most common barrier in communicating bad news, followed by the relatives’ negative position towards bringing up the bad news to the patient, and the low level of patient’s education and the short life expectancy. The study shows the need for support and training of the medical professionals in addressing bad news situations and the importance of the protocols with guidelines and steps to be performed during that communication.

Open access

Ana Maria Ionescu, Nicolae Carciumaru, Sergiu Chirila and Rodica Sîrbu

Abstract

Stroke remain the third cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Our modern time enemy, atherosclerosis, with his many faces, is strongly related with stroke and its major subtypes. Ischemic stroke account up to 80 % of all stroke. As a subtype of ischemic stroke, lacunar infarcts remain an important concern. Aim of this study is to correlate carotid disease findings with lacunar stroke. We studied a group of 129 patients with carotid disease, and we established a possible relationship with lacunar stroke. Ultrasonography findings were correlated with the presence of lacunar stroke, confirmed by CT scan. Our study demonstrate that carotid plaques number could be a good predictor for lacunar stroke risk. External carotid plaques number is strongly correlate with lacunar stroke presence.