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Open access

Péter Halász

Summary

Introduction. Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent form of epilepsy in adulthood. It is classified as local/regional epilepsy. However, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of both temporal lobes and this provides abundant arguments to question this view, and consider MTLE as one of the typical bilateral system epilepsies.

Aim. To provide a contemporary review of medial temporal lobe epilepsy, discussing the bilateral aspects, with reference to epilepsy surgery.

Methods. A literature review and a resume of the author’s own experiences with MTLE patients.

Results. Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging data provide convincing data supporting that MTLE is a bilateral disease. The uni-and bilateral features form a continuum and the participation rate of the two temporal lobes determine course and surgical perspective of the individual patient.

Conclusions. The contradictory data of invasive presurgical evaluations of MTLE patients suggest that there need to identify further indicatory markers of bilaterality and thus change the presurgical evaluation from the non-invasive towards the invasive ways. The mechanisms of the interrelationship between the two temporal lobes in MTLE warrants further research.

Open access

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Kirill Y. Subbotin and Natalia G. Yermakova

Summary

Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood.

Aim. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible relationship between epilepsy forms, gender, focus localization, lateralization, handedness and cellular immunity with seizures frequency, their severity and length of therapeutic remission in partial forms of epilepsy.

Material and methods. Ninety two patients (38 men and 54 women) were included in the study. Symptomatic epilepsy was diagnosed in 40 patients and the cryptogenic form was diagnosed in 52 patients. The amount of different lymphocyte clusters were evaluated and they were transformed into nominal variables for MANOVA analysis. MANOVA was used for the analysis of the interrelationship between nominal fixed factors (epilepsy forms, gender, handedness, and focus laterality, and immunity variables) and dependent variables (remission and seizure frequency and their severity).

Results. Simple partial seizure (SPS) and complex partial seizure (CPS) frequencies were under the influence of interaction between immune and neurobiological variables. SPS, and in particular sensory SPS, were associated with CD4/CD8 ratio, gender, left temporal focus and handedness. The highest frequencies of SPS were revealed in cases of low CD4/CD8 ratio combined with left temporal focus, female gender and left-handedness. The maximal CPS frequency was observed in patients with a left frontal focus combined with a high B-lymphocyte level. The more severe seizures were revealed in left-handers with low CD8 and high CD4/CD8 ratio and in frontal left focus and a high T-lymphocyte level. There was a correlation between CD4 cell level and length of remission.

Conclusion. The complex multifarious connections between neurobiological, immune and clinical variables in patients with partial forms of epilepsy really exist.

Open access

Vesela Ivanova, Milen P. Karaivanov and Tihomir I. Dikov

Open access

José Pimentel

Summary

Background. Approximately 26% of the burden of neurologic diseases is due to epilepsy. Its negative impact reflects mainly on people with epilepsy (PWE) themselves.

Aims. To highlight the negative impacts of epilepsy on the lives of PEW’s so as to identify a realistic approach to their individual needs.

Methods. For recently published papers PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used. In addition relevant references mentioned in the searched articles were also considered.

Review and discussion. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures and refractory epilepsy are the most important factors burdening PWE’s, resulting in increased injuries and mortality, including Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). The need of chronic intake of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of epilepsy surgery are also important with regards to potential for side effects, drug interactions, and different surgery risks. PWE harbour more medical and psychiatric comorbidities than the general population and results in a decreased quality of life. Decreased self-esteem and major stigma are also frequent, linked to social, economic and personal negative consequences.

Age also plays a role, younger people being more stigmatized given the interdiction to drive or difficulty in getting a job. In the elderly, seizures may have an impact on mental status, mood and sleep. Gender may also contribute, particularly involving women in childbearing age, linked to the fear or depression due to the possibility of AED-induced fertility disturbances, foetal malformations, or breast feeding side-effects.

Conclusions. The burden that PWE face must be considered by all people involved in the management of their epilepsy. The causes may be multifactorial, all interconnected and each one influencing the others.

Open access

Toni I. Stoyanov, Emilio Corral-Fernadez, Antonio Melero-Abellan, Pablo Sarduy-Fernandez, Paloma Casado-Santamaria, Elias Garcia-Grimaldo, Julio Valer Corellano, Kaloyan T. Ivanov, Nikolay H. Kolev and Pencho T. Tonchev

Summary

Acute appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis, usually known as pinworm, is very rare and affects mostly children.According to different authors, it is controversial whether pinworms cause inflammation of the appendix or appendiceal colic only.We presentacase ofa14-year-old female with three subsequent hospitalizations in 1 month due to abdominal pain in the right lower abdomen, with rebound tenderness, normal CTscan and laboratory findings. During the last hospitalization, laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Intraoperatively multiple pinworms were found in the appendix. These were trapped byastercolith in the appendicular base inanoninflamed and histologically normal appendix. Two oral doses of mebendazole were administered postoperatively. Uneventful postoperative period and postoperative follow-up showed lack of symptoms six months after the operation. Despite the widespread idea that acute appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis is very rare, it should always be considered in young female patients with repeated abdominal pain in the right lower abdomen with normal laboratory and radiologic findings.

Open access

Ivelina A. Yordanova, Desislava D. Tsvetanova, Diana D. Strateva, Pavlina D. Yordanova-Laleva and Dimitar K. Gospodinov

Summary

Acne vulgaris is among the commonest inflammatory skin diseases affecting pilosebaceous units. It occurs mainly in puberty and affects adolescents at the age of 14-19 years both females and males, in relation to sebum production of hair follicles under the action of sex hormones. Clinically the disease is presented with comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and scars in some cases. Seborrheic areas face, chest and back are affected. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown significant number of female patients aged over 25 years with acne and the term Adult onset acne (AOA)was established.The latter is manifested clinically in the lower third of the face. Primary etiological cause of AOAisahormonal imbalance, mainly hyperandrogenemia. Acase ofa25-year-old woman with adult acne and elevated levels of testosterone and prolactine is presented in this paper.

Open access

Carmen Uhlmann and Walter Fröscher

Summary

Background. Biofeedback methods represent side effect free complementary options in the treatment of epilepsy. In this paper we review the current status of these methods in terms of clinical study results and their evaluation by systematic review papers. Possible mechanisms of action in biofeedback methods are discussed.

Aim. To present the current status of biofeedback methods applied to patients with epilepsy.

Material and Methods. With a literature search up to 10/2016 we screened publications containing the search terms “biofeedback”, “neurofeedback” or “neurotherapy” and “epilepsy” or “seizure” for intervention and population search terms respectively.

Results. Four different techniques of biofeedback were used to improve seizure frequency in patients with epilepsy. Three of these techniques, measuring EEG (slow cortical potentials and sensory motor rhythm) or electrodermal activity (galvanic skin response, GSR) seem to be promising methods for successful seizure control. Nevertheless, methodological standards in the conducted trials were too low for assured empirical evidence in their efficacy.

Conclusions. Biofeedback methods could be applied to patients to a greater extent. Probably due to the missing empirical evidence of efficacy and the high demand on patients’ and therapists’ time and commitment and therefore low cost effectiveness, these methods are hardly offered. Especially the relatively new approach of GSR biofeedback represents a promising option here.

Open access

Mirosław Zagaja, Barbara Miziak, Katarzyna Załuska, Paweł Marzęda, Bartłomiej Drop, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Grażyna Ossowska, Stanisław J. Czuczwar and Jarogniew J. Łuszczki

Summary

Introduction. Patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy are usually treated with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The search for therapeutically efficacious AED combinations is still a challenging issue for clinicians and epileptologists throughout the world.

Aim. To determine the interaction profile for the combination of retigabine (RTG) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) in both, the model of tonic-clonic seizures, the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model and chimney test (motor performance) in adult male albino Swiss mice.

Methods. Isobolographic analysis (type I) was applied to characterize interactions for the combination of RTG with OXC with respect to its anticonvulsant and acute side (neurotoxic) effects, as determined in the MES and chimney tests, respectively.

Results. The combination of RTG with OXC at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 produced additive interactions in the MES test in mice. Similarly, the combination of RTG with OXC at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 produced additive interaction with a tendency towards sub-additivity in the chimney test in mice. Measurement of total brain concentrations of both AEDs revealed that RTG did not affect total brain concentrations of OXC and inversely, OXC had no impact on RTG’s total brain concentrations, confirming pharmacodynamic interaction between the drugs.

Conclusions. The additive pharmacodynamic interactions in both the MES and chimney tests in mice were observed for the combination of RTG with OXC.

Open access

Svetlana A. Mateva, Margarita R. Nikolova, Alexandar V. Valkov and Margarita R. Nikolova

Summary

Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults with a relative incidence amongst other sarcomas ranging from 9.8% to 16%. It usually locates in the limbs and retroperitoneum. Primary liposarcomas of the larynx and hypopharynx are rare, comprising less than 20% of all head and neck liposarcomas. According to World Health Organization, these tumors are divided into four histologic types, and well-differentiated liposarcoma is the most common one. It is a tumor of low-grade malignancy that may recur locally, but does not metastasize. We present a case of laryngopharyngeal well- differentiated liposarcoma in an old patient with two previous removals. We also discuss recently published cases with this unusual location of liposarcoma.

Open access

Georgi D. Bonchev, Snezha Z. Zlateva and Marieta I. Yovcheva

Summary

The aim of the study was to carry out a toxicological chemical analysis of methanol in detectable quantities in the blood of patients with acute alcohol intoxication. Blood samples from 85 patients with acute alcohol intoxication were analysed for the presence of methanol. All patients with acute methanol intoxication were excluded from the study. The methods of gas chromatography with vapor-phase analysis (head-space) and flame ionization detection (FID) were used. The limit of detection (LOD=0.015 g/L) and the limit of quantification (LOQ=0.025 g/L) of methanol in whole blood were evaluated. In 30% of the cases, methanol was found in the blood in detectable quantities. The levels of methanol were on the average 5 to 6 times lower than the toxic methanol level (0200 g/L) and they were not due to natural metabolic processes (ingestion of fruit, fruit juices or vegetables). No reliable statistically linear correlation between the concentration of ethanol and methanol was found. Methanol subintoxications are major factors in alcohol intoxications, in which the quantity of the alcohol ingested is not as important as its quality. Chronic methanol subintoxication of people who often consume alcohol of poor quality is discussed.