A.K. Sharma, S.S. Potdar, M.A. Yewale, Deepak B. Shirgaonkar, K.S. Pakhare, B.M. Sargar, M.V. Rokade and U.M. Patil
Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method from aqueous cadmium nitrate solution. The bath temperatures were maintained at room temperature (25 °C) and at higher temperature (80 °C). The structural studies revealed that the films showed mixed phases of CdO and Cd(OH)2 with hexagonal/monoclinic crystal structure. Annealing treatment removed the hydroxide phase and the films converted into pure CdO with cubic, face centered crystal structure. SEM micrographs of as-deposited films revealed nanowire-like morphology for room temperature deposited films while nanorod-like morphology for high temperature deposited films. However, cube-like morphology was observed after air annealing. Elemental composition was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Band gap energies of the as-deposited films varied over the range of 3 eV to 3.5 eV, whereas the annealed films showed band gap energy variation in the range of 2.2 eV to 2.4 eV. The annealed films were successfully investigated for NH3 sensing at different operating temperatures and at different gas concentrations. The room temperature synthesized film showed a response of 17.3 %, whereas high temperature synthesized film showed a response of 13.5 % at 623 K upon exposure to 24 ppm of NH3.
Copper tin sulfide (Cu2SnS3) is a unique semiconductor, whose nanocrystals have attracted researchers’ attention for its tunable energy bandgap and wavelength in visible and near infrared range. Quantum dots which are fabricated from this material are highly suitable for optoelectronics and solar cell applications. This paper discusses the tunable energy bandgap, exciton Bohr radius and wavelength range of wurtzite structure of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots to assess the opportunity to use them in optoelectronics applications. The considerations show that the mole fraction of copper increases as energy bandgap decreases and tunable energy bandgap of this quantum dot material is inversely proportional to the wavelength.
An aqueous colloidal solution was prepared at 80 °C and pH = 9 from suitable chemical compounds to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals and thin films. The ZnO crystals were grown in the colloidal solution under special conditions. Their micrographs showed ZnO rods with hexagonal structure. The number of the rods, increased over time. The ZnO thin films were produced on glass substrates in the same colloidal solution using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in different deposition times. The produced films were post-annealed for about one hour at 400 °C. Crystalline structure, phase transitions and nanostructure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZnO wurtzite structure was dominant, and by increasing the deposition time, the films became more crystalline. Nanostructure of the films changed from rod to wire and transformed into pyramid-like structures. Also, morphology of the films changed and re-nucleation ocurred. Optical reflectance was measured in the wavelength of 300 nm to 800 nm with a spectrophotometer. Other optical properties and optical band gaps were calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation on reflectivity curves. Second harmonic generation was calculated by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refraction and real part of susceptibilities were obtained. Both positive and negative nonlinear refractions appeared in the ZnO films. It is important for the use in optoelectronic devices. Electronic properties were assessed by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential calculation. The band gap structure and density of states were calculated.
Jian Chen, Xiongfei Li, Wei Li, Cong Li, Baoshan Xie, Shuowei Dai, Jian-Jun He and Yanjie Ren
Quasi-static uniaxial compressive tests of open-cell copper (Cu) foams (OCCF) were carried out on an in-situ bi-direction tension/compress testing machine (IBTC 2000). The effects of strain rate, porosity and pore size on the energy absorption of open-cell copper foams were investigated to reveal the energy absorption mechanism. The results show that three performance parameters of open-cell copper foams (OCCF), involving compressive strength, Young modulus and yield stress, increase simultaneously with an increase of strain rate and reduce with increasing porosity and pore size. Furthermore, the energy absorption capacity of OCCF increases with an increase of porosity and pore size. However, energy absorption efficiency increases with increasing porosity and decreasing pore size. The finite element simulation results show that the two-dimensional stochastic model can predict the energy absorption performance of the foam during the compressive process. The large permanent plastic deformation at the weak edge hole is the main factor that affects the energy absorption.
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 →6H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.
W. Christopher Immanuel, S. Paul Mary Deborrah, S.S.R. Inbanathan and D. Nithyaa Sree
Polycrystalline chalcogenide semiconductors play a vital role in solar cell applications due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Among the chalcogenide semi-conductors, CdZnS is one kind of such important material for applications in various modern solid state devices such as solar cells, light emitting diode, detector etc. Due to their applications in numerous electro-optic devices, group II-VI semiconductors have been studied extensively. In recent years, major attention has been given to the study of electrical and optical properties of CdZnS thin films. In this work, Cd1−xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique. Phase purity and surface morphology properties were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Chemical composition was studied using energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Optical band gap property was investigated using UV-Spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity studies were performed by two probe method and thermoelectric power setup (TEP) to determine the type of the material. This work reports the effect of Zn on structural, electrical, microstructural and optical properties of these films.
Layered magnetic heterostructures are very promising candidates in spintronics in which the influences of interfaces, surfaces and defects play a crucial role. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for studying in detail the chemical state and electronic structure of Co2FeAl (CFA) Heusler alloy interfaced with Si substrates. XPS survey scan spectra have clearly shown the presence of Fe, Co and Al signal along with the signal due to Si. The presence of Co, Fe and Al signal confirms the formation of CFA alloy phase. Our XPS results support our previous study  on CFA/Si structure in determining the magnetic and transport properties across the interface.
Tomasz Kotwica, Jaroslaw Domaradzki, Damian Wojcieszak, Andrzej Sikora, Malgorzata Kot and Dieter Schmeisser
The paper presents results of investigations on surface properties of transparent semiconducting thin films based on (Ti-Cu)oxide system prepared using multi-magnetron sputtering system. The thin films were prepared using two programmed profiles of pulse width modulation coefficient, so called V- and U-shape profiles. The applied powering profiles allowed fabrication of thin films with gradient distribution of Ti and Cu elements over the thickness of deposited layers. Optical investigations allowed determination of transparency of prepared films that reached up to 60 % in the visible part of optical radiation, which makes them attractive for the transparent electronics domain. Surface properties investigations showed that the surface of mixed (Ti-Cu)oxides was sensitive to adsorption, in particular to carbon dioxide and water vapor. Soft etching with argon ions resulted in surface cleaning from residuals, however, deoxidation of Cu-oxide components was also observed.
Reşit Özmenteş, Cabir Temirci, Abdullah Özkartal, Kadir Ejderha and Nezir Yildirim
Copper(II) oxide (CuO) in powder form was evaporated thermally on the front surface of an n-Si (1 0 0) single crystal using a vacuum coating unit. Structural investigation of the deposited CuO film was made using X-ray difraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) techniques. It was determined from the obtained results that the copper oxide films exhibited single-phase CuO properties in a monoclinic crystal structure. Transmittance measurement of the CuO film was performed by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Band gap energy of the film was determined as 1.74 eV under indirect band gap assumption. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the CuO/n-Si heterojunctions were performed under illumination and in the dark to reveal the photovoltaic and electrical properties of the produced samples. From the I-V measurements, it was revealed that the CuO/n-Si heterojunctions produced by thermal evaporation exibit excellent rectifying properties in dark and photovoltaic properties under illumination. Conversion efficiencies of the CuO/n-Si solar cells are comparable to those of CuO/n-Si produced by other methods described in the literature.