Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 →6H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.
W. Christopher Immanuel, S. Paul Mary Deborrah, S.S.R. Inbanathan and D. Nithyaa Sree
Polycrystalline chalcogenide semiconductors play a vital role in solar cell applications due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Among the chalcogenide semi-conductors, CdZnS is one kind of such important material for applications in various modern solid state devices such as solar cells, light emitting diode, detector etc. Due to their applications in numerous electro-optic devices, group II-VI semiconductors have been studied extensively. In recent years, major attention has been given to the study of electrical and optical properties of CdZnS thin films. In this work, Cd1−xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique. Phase purity and surface morphology properties were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Chemical composition was studied using energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Optical band gap property was investigated using UV-Spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity studies were performed by two probe method and thermoelectric power setup (TEP) to determine the type of the material. This work reports the effect of Zn on structural, electrical, microstructural and optical properties of these films.
Layered magnetic heterostructures are very promising candidates in spintronics in which the influences of interfaces, surfaces and defects play a crucial role. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for studying in detail the chemical state and electronic structure of Co2FeAl (CFA) Heusler alloy interfaced with Si substrates. XPS survey scan spectra have clearly shown the presence of Fe, Co and Al signal along with the signal due to Si. The presence of Co, Fe and Al signal confirms the formation of CFA alloy phase. Our XPS results support our previous study  on CFA/Si structure in determining the magnetic and transport properties across the interface.
Tomasz Kotwica, Jaroslaw Domaradzki, Damian Wojcieszak, Andrzej Sikora, Malgorzata Kot and Dieter Schmeisser
The paper presents results of investigations on surface properties of transparent semiconducting thin films based on (Ti-Cu)oxide system prepared using multi-magnetron sputtering system. The thin films were prepared using two programmed profiles of pulse width modulation coefficient, so called V- and U-shape profiles. The applied powering profiles allowed fabrication of thin films with gradient distribution of Ti and Cu elements over the thickness of deposited layers. Optical investigations allowed determination of transparency of prepared films that reached up to 60 % in the visible part of optical radiation, which makes them attractive for the transparent electronics domain. Surface properties investigations showed that the surface of mixed (Ti-Cu)oxides was sensitive to adsorption, in particular to carbon dioxide and water vapor. Soft etching with argon ions resulted in surface cleaning from residuals, however, deoxidation of Cu-oxide components was also observed.
Reşit Özmenteş, Cabir Temirci, Abdullah Özkartal, Kadir Ejderha and Nezir Yildirim
Copper(II) oxide (CuO) in powder form was evaporated thermally on the front surface of an n-Si (1 0 0) single crystal using a vacuum coating unit. Structural investigation of the deposited CuO film was made using X-ray difraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) techniques. It was determined from the obtained results that the copper oxide films exhibited single-phase CuO properties in a monoclinic crystal structure. Transmittance measurement of the CuO film was performed by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Band gap energy of the film was determined as 1.74 eV under indirect band gap assumption. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the CuO/n-Si heterojunctions were performed under illumination and in the dark to reveal the photovoltaic and electrical properties of the produced samples. From the I-V measurements, it was revealed that the CuO/n-Si heterojunctions produced by thermal evaporation exibit excellent rectifying properties in dark and photovoltaic properties under illumination. Conversion efficiencies of the CuO/n-Si solar cells are comparable to those of CuO/n-Si produced by other methods described in the literature.
The effect of MgB2 addition on the Eu1Ba2Cu3O7 (EBCO) ceramics was systematically studied. Series of Eu1Ba2Cu3O7 + x(MgB2) samples (x = 0 wt.%, 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%) were prepared using traditional solid state method. X-ray powder diffraction measurements were used for phase identification. The lattice parameters and orthorombicity decreased with MgB2 addition. A standard four point measurement method was used to determine transition temperatures Tc of superconducting samples. Tc values of the samples were decreasing with MgB2 concentration. TGA results indicate thermal stability of doped samples.
Tadeusz Groń, Magdalena Piątkowska, Elżbieta Tomaszewicz, Bogdan Sawicki, Piotr Urbanowicz and Henryk Duda
Polycrystalline samples of new scheelite-type tungstates, Pb1−3x xPr2xWO4 with 0.0098 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20, where denotes cationic vacancies have been successfully prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method using Pr2(WO4)3 and PbWO4 as the starting reactants. The influence of the Pr3+ substitution in the scheelite framework on the structure and optical properties of prepared new ceramic materials has been examined using powder X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results of dielectric studies of Pb1−3x xPr2xWO4 samples showed both low values of dielectric constant (below 14) and loss tangent (below 0.2). The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power measurements revealed a low conductivity (∼2 × 10−9 S/m) and the sign change of thermoelectric power around the temperature of 366 K suggesting the p-n transition. These results are discussed in the context of vacancy, acceptor and donor levels as well as the Maxwell-Wagner model.
K. Ramarao, B. Rajesh Babu, B. Kishore Babu, V. Veeraiah, K. Rajasekhar, B. Ranjith Kumar and B. Swarna Latha
In this work, Ni substituted magnesium spinel ferrites having general formula Mg1−xNixFe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3) were synthesized by standard solid state reaction method. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), DC resistivity measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the single spinel phase. The lattice constant decreased with increasing Ni content due to the difference in the ionic radii of Mg2+ and Ni2+ ions. The FT-IR spectra reveled two prominent frequency bands in the wave number range of 400 cm−1 to 600 cm−1, which confirmed the cubic spinel structure of obtained compound and completion of chemical reaction. Magnetic studies revealed that the saturation magnetization increased with the substitution of Ni. The increase in magnetization was explained on the basis of distribution of magnetic and non-magnetic cations among A and B sites of the spinel lattice. A significant influence of cation distribution on DC electrical resistivity and activation energy was observed.
Dye sensitized solar cells are photoelectrochemical cells mimicking photosynthesis. They represent a new generation of solar cells which is intensively studied nowadays. This cell was fabricated using TiO2 nanoparticles coated on FTO glass, organic dyes as photosensitizer, PEDOT:PSS as counter electrode and iodide-triiodide as electrolyte. The present work aims at the use of low cost new organic dyes viz. biebrich scarlet, alizarine cyanine green and evans blue for DSSC as an alternative to metallic dyes. In the present work, I-V characteristics, energy or power conversion efficiencies of the dyes have been studied in different solvents. The photoelectrochemical properties of the dyes were observed under 1.5 AM condition.