Łukasz Herezy, Dariusz Janik and Krzysztof Skrzypkowski
The study summarises the operating characteristics of the powered roof support (shield) used in an automated plough system. Investigated longwall support units were controlled automatically or by section engineers and positioned in the ‘saw tooth’ configuration with respect to the longwall face (automatic mode) or linear to the face. Shield pressure data have been analysed in order to identify the impacts of particular factors on the pressure increase profiles. The analysis was supported by the Statistica software to determine the statistical significance of isolated factors. Equations governing the leg pressure at the given time instant were derived and the roof stability factor ‘g’ was obtained accordingly, recalling the maximal admissible roof displacement method recommended by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). In the current mining practice, its values are used in monitoring of strata behaviour as indicators of shield–strata interactions, particularly in the context of roof control in longwall mining. It is vital that the method used should be adapted to the actual conditions under which the longwall is operated. In the absence of such adaptations, there will be major discrepancies in results. The conclusions section summarises the current research problems addressed at the Department of Underground Mining, in which the support pressure data in longwall operations are used. The first aspect involves the delineation of deformations of a longwall main gate about 100 m ahead of the face. The second issue addressed involves the risk assessment of roof rock caving or rock sliding in the tail gate. Another aspect involves the standardisation of local conditions to support the methodology of interpreting shield–strata interactions in the context of work safety. These methods are being currently verified in situ.
This article shows the mathematical method to determine the lateral stress on the shaft and toe resistance of pile using the new approach. The method was originally invented by Meyer and Kowalow for the static load test. The approximation curve was used for the estimation of both settlement curve and toe resistance curve of the pile. The load applied at the head of the pile is balanced by the sum of two components: the resistance under the toe of the pile and the skin friction. Therefore, the settlement curve is compilation of two factors: the skin friction curve and the resistance under toe curve. The analysis was based on the verification of the methods using laboratory experiments, that is, static load tests. The results of the research allowed to determine the relationship between parameters of the Meyer–Kowalow curve. On the basis of the relationships, it was possible to determine the skin friction and the toe resistance of the pile. Mathematical analysis of curve parameters allowed to determine the influence of the toe resistance on the settlement.