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Open access

Előd Etele Élthes, Alexandra Lavinia Cozlea, Márton Dénes, Cristian Borz, Kálmán Sárdi, Orsolya Páll and Árpád Török

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate and compare laparoscopic and conventional open procedures for bilateral inguinal hernia surgical repair, using clinical, intraoperative, and postoperative criteria.

Methods: Forty-three patients with bilateral inguinal hernia were included in a retrospective study, between 2014–2017. All patients underwent conventional open or laparoscopic bilateral hernioplasty, and were divided into two groups: a conventional open group (COG) and a laparoscopy group (LG). Clinical, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes were reviewed.

Results: In the laparoscopic hernioplasty group, there was a significantly shorter hospitalization period (p = 0.026), less postoperative pain (p = 0.03), and a prompt return to work (p = 0.043) compared to the conventional open procedure. On the other hand, patients who underwent hernioplasty with the Progrip-type synthetic mesh developed a lower pain score, an earlier return to work, and a quick start to normal physical activities in comparison with other mesh types used for the treatment of bilateral inguinal hernias. For patients who underwent conventional open procedure, there was a significantly shorter operating time (p = 0.042).

Conclusion: Laparoscopic bilateral inguinal hernioplasty is a time-consuming and technically demanding procedure. However, the current study underlines the benefits of this type of surgery. This technique presents comparable clinical, intraoperative, and postoperative results with the conventional open surgery.

Open access

Ioana-Aurița Albu-Stan, Cecilia Petrovan, Diana Cerghizan, Lia Yero Eremie, Adriana Elena Crăciun and Constantin Copotoiu

Abstract

Background: Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an uncommon but serious complication related to oral and intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. Its pathogenesis is not well understood, and there are no universal protocols accepted to treat it.

The aim of our study was to use the same questionnaire as four years ago to evaluate the awareness of dentists in Tîrgu Mureș regarding the dental treatments that can be applied in patients on BP therapy, and to assess how their knowledge on the subject has evolved over these years.

Material and method: We used the same questionnaire-based study as four years ago among dentists in Tîrgu Mureș, raising important issues such as: is the patient asked about current or previous treatments with BPs, do they perform surgical treatment in these patients, do they know under what conditions they can perform this treatment, or do they deem it necessary to contact the prescriber before surgical treatment.

Results: One-hundred twenty questionnaires were returned. The majority of respondents (n = 113, 94.2%) included the question regarding the use of BPs in their medical records. Of all respondents, 48 (40%) perform dental or surgical treatments on patients undergoing BP therapy, 68 (56.7%) do not perform dental or surgical treatments on these patients, and four of the respondents (3.3%) did not know the answer. One hundred (83.3%) respondents always contact the prescriber prior to surgery in these patients, regardless of how BPs are administered.

Conclusions: According to the findings of the present study, many of the respondent doctors have heard about BPs and their complications, but they are not aware of the fundamental concepts of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw prevention and treatment protocols. In the absence of appropriate protocols, the quality of life of these patients is compromised.

Open access

Roxana Cucuruzac, Emese Marton, Roxana Hodas, Ciprian Blendea, Mirela Pirvu, Annabella Benedek and Theodora Benedek

Abstract

Background: The impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on left ventricular performance in patients with scleroderma is still unknown. This study aims to perform a comparative echocardiographic analysis of left ventricular function between two different etiological varieties of PAH, namely PAH caused by systemic sclerosis as a representative of systemic inflammatory diseases and PAH caused by myocardial ischemia.

Material and method: We conducted a prospective observational study on 82 patients, of which 36 were with documented PAH, with the systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery above 35 mmHg, and 46 were patients with normal pulmonary artery pressure. The study population was divided into two groups, based on the etiology of PAH: group 1 included patients diagnosed with scleroderma (n = 48); group 2 included patients with coronary artery disease (n = 35). Patients from each group were divided into two subgroups based on the diagnosis of PAH: subgroup 1A – subjects with scleroderma and associated PAH (n = 20); subgroup 1B – subjects with scleroderma without PAH (n = 28); subgroup 2A – ischemic patients with associated PAH (n = 16); and subgroup 2B – patients with ischemic disease without PAH (n = 19).

Results: A significant difference between LVEF values in patients with PAH versus those without PAH in the ischemic group (p = 0.023) was recorded. Compared to scleroderma subjects, ischemic patients presented significantly lower values of LVEF in both PAH and non-PAH subgroups (p <0.0001 and p <0.0001, respectively). Linear regression analysis between sPAP and LVEF revealed a significant negative correlation only for the ischemia group (r = −0.52, p = 0.001) and the scleroderma 2B subgroup (r = −0.51, p = 0.04). Tissue Doppler analysis of left ventricular function revealed a significant impact of PAH on left ventricular diastolic performance in the ischemic group.

Conclusions: Compared to patients with coronary artery disease, those with scleroderma present a less pronounced deterioration of LVEF in response to pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Open access

Zsuzsanna Jeremiás, Katalin Makó, Anca Bogdan, Ioana Miu, Alexandra Șerdean and Theodora Benedek

Abstract

Introduction: The burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral vascular pathologies caused by atherosclerosis is constantly increasing. There is continuous research aiming to develop new methods that can evaluate the extent of atherosclerotic disease in different vascular beds, thus estimating global risk. Similar to carotid artery thickness, which is an established marker for increased cardiovascular risk and cerebrovascular disease, femoral intima-media thickness (f-IMT) may have the same role in case of peripheral arterial involvement. The aim of the study was determine whether f-IMT, determined at the level of the superficial femoral artery, is related to traditional risk factors, markers of peripheral vascular atherosclerosis and inflammation.

Material and methods: Forty-six patients with known cardiovascular disease were included in the study. Demographical data, cardiovascular history, and risk factors were assessed. We determined metabolic parameters (uric acid, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides), renal function (creatinine and GFR), and inflammation status for all patients. Each patient underwent ultrasound examination of the superficial femoral artery, by which f-IMT was determined for right and left limbs. Ankle-brachial index was also calculated. Data from the low (f-IMT <0.75 mm) and high (f-IMT >0.75 mm) f-IMT groups were compared and correlation coefficients were determined in each groups for f-IMT in relation to the other parameters.

Results: Mean age was 71.08 ± 9.78 years. 86.95% of the patients suffered from hyper-tension, 56.62% had coronary heart disease, and 21.73% had a history of stroke. More females had history of hypertension and CAD. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors were dyslipidemia (68.86%), diabetes (21.73%), and smoking (21.73%). There were significant differences between gender groups for total cholesterol levels (161.36 ± 25.04 mg/dL, 95%CI 150.26–172.47 in males vs. 201.33 ± 52.73 mg/dL, 95%CI 170.07–223.60 in females, p = 0.02), creatinine values (1.04 ± 0.22 mg/dL, 95%CI 0.94–1.14 for males vs. 0.91 ± 0.23 mg/dL, 95%CI 0.81–1.00 for females, p = 0.018), and left f-IMT (0.87 ± 0.18 mm, 95%CI 0.79–0.95 for males vs. 0.75 ± 0.10 mm, 95%CI 0.70–0.79 for females, p = 0.0049). In the group with low f-IMT, a significant, reverse correlation was established between f-IMT, uric acid (r = −0.483, p = 0.042), and right ABI (r = −730, p = 0.0006). In the group with high f-IMT, age (r = 0.408, p = 0.031), fasting glucose (r = 0.407, p = 0.034), total cholesterol (r = 0.429, p = 0.02), HDL-cholesterol (r = −0.56, p = 0.0019), triglycerides (r = 0.45, p = 0.01), hs-CRP (r = 0.45, p = 0.01), and left ABI (r = −0.71, p <0.0001) showed a significant correlation to f-IMT.

Conclusions: Increased femoral intima-media thickness is related to age, cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of peripheral arterial disease. Patients with higher f-IMT have a more augmented inflammatory status. Based on these correlations, in patients with cardiovascular disease, f-IMT could become a marker for increased cardiovascular risk.

Open access

Ioan Ferenț, András Mester, Monica Chițu, Annabella Benedek, Mihaela Rațiu, Roxana Hodas and Imre Benedek

Abstract

Background: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) presents important limits in in-stent restenosis (ISR) evaluation in case of metallic coronary stents, due to the artifacts determined by stent struts, which alter in-stent plaque analysis. In case of bioresorbable scaffolds, stent strut resorption allows accurate evaluation of the vessel wall. Aim of the study: This study aims to compare the feasibility of CTA as a follow-up imaging method for ISR diagnosis following elective PTCA procedures, between bioresorbable scaffolds and metallic coronary stents.

Material and methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study on 73 patients with elective PTCA procedures in their medical history, in whom 113 stents were assessed via CTA in order to diagnose ISR. Based on stent type, the patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 – patients with bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) (n = 30); and Group 2 – patients with bare metal stents (BMS) (n = 43). Plaque analysis was possible only in the BVS group with a post-processing research-dedicated software, Syngo.via Frontier, which identified plaque morphology and virtual histology composition.

Results: After CTA evaluation, the BVS group presented a significantly higher incidence of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group 1 – 73% vs. Group 2 – 30%, p <0.0001). The proximal part of the right coronary artery (RCA) presented a significantly higher percentage of metallic stents (14% BMS vs. 2% BVS, p = 0.0029). The comparative analysis of CTA sensibility for the visual evaluation of ISR identified a significantly higher percentage of diagnostic CT evaluations in the BVS group (Group 1 – 94% vs. Group 2 – 76.19%, p = 0.0006). CTA evaluation provided the most accurate results for the 3.0 and 3.5 mm devices. Regarding CTA sensibility for ISR diagnosis, the BVS group presented the smallest incidence of non-diagnostic CT evaluations.

Conclusions: CTA evaluation of bioresorbable scaffolds is superior to metallic stent assessment, the latter being influenced by numerous sources of error dependent mainly on the presence of the metal structure.

Open access

Ioan Ferenț, András Mester, Monica Chițu, Annabella Benedek, Mihaela Rațiu, Roxana Hodas and Imre Benedek

Abstract

Background: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) occupies an important place in the evaluation of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, both before and after the implantation of bioresorbable stents (BVS), providing an accurate assessment of the treated lesions.

Aim of the study: This study aims the prospective follow-up of atherosclerotic plaques electively treated with BVS implantation via CTA evaluation in terms of morphological and virtual histology aspects.

Material and methods: This is a prospective observational study which enrolled 30 patients electively treated with BVS implantation, in whom CTA was performed after PTCA in order to assess the morphological and virtual histology aspects of coronary plaques. In order to evaluate the impact determined by pre- and post-implantation procedures, statistical analysis was performed among 6 subgroups.

Results: After BVS implantation, a significant reduction was observed in terms of stenosis % (61.63 ± 12.63% in subgroup 1A vs. 24.41 ± 12.48% in subgroup 1B, p <0.0001) and eccentricity index (0.46 ± 0.24 in subgroup 1A vs. 0.43 ± 0.24 in subgroup 1B, p <0.0001). In terms of plaque components, there were significant differences with regard to lipid volume and lipid % (20.07 ± 15.67 mm3 in subgroup 1A vs. 11.05 ± 10.83 mm3 in subgroup 1B, p = 0.01), which presented a significant reduction after BVS implantation. The calcium score evaluated locally (82.97 ± 107.5 in subgroup 1A vs. 96.54 ± 85.73 in subgroup 1B, p = 0.25) and on the target coronary artery (148.2 ± 222.3 in subgroup 1A vs. 206.6 ± 224.0 in subgroup 1B, p = 0.10), as well as the total calcium score (377.6 ± 459.5 in subgroup 1A vs. 529.5 ± 512.9 in subgroup 1B, p = 0.32), presented no significant differences when compared with and without post-dilatation lesions. As far as CT vulnerability markers are concerned, the study groups presented significant differences only in terms of spotty calcifications (66.66% in subgroup 1A vs. 79.16% in subgroup 1B, p = 0.05) and low attenuation (37.5% in subgroup 1A vs. 20.83% in subgroup 1B, p = 0.01).

Conclusions: Following the analysis of coronary artery plaques after the implantation of BVS, significant changes were noted both in the morphology of the atherosclerotic plaques treated with these devices and in the lumen and coronary wall.

Open access

Daniela Vrinceanu, Ana Maria Oproiu, Mihai Dumitru, Madalina Georgescu and Mariana Costache

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Excision of facial cutaneous carcinomas requires further reconstruction in a combined team with plastic surgeons. Among the traditional risk factors, the unprotected occupational exposure to sunlight can be identified. Giant masses at the level of the nose are frequently squamous carcinomas in origin. Moreover, repeated tumor trauma favours local-regional and remote extension.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present step by step the surgical management of an old woman with a nasal mass of 58/36/20 mm. Also, the patient presented right genian tumefaction of approximately 6 months in evolution.

RESULTS. The patient was submitted to surgical resection with free margins, leaving a considerable nasal and genian groove defect. Teaming up with the plastic surgeon, we applied complex reconstruction techniques with a satisfactory aesthetic and functional result. The histopathologic diagnosis confirmed our suspicion of an acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma with lymph nodes metastasis.

CONCLUSION. Our case exhibited traditional risk factors, living in a rural environment. The tumor degree of aggressiveness was increased by repeated self-inflicted trauma. Late presentation to healthcare services implied complex facial reconstruction for the combined resection of the nasal tip and genian lymph node.

Open access

Klaus Vogt, Inese Daine-Loza and Maris Sperga

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Radiofrequency reduction and Coblation are widely used procedures for the treatment of functionally enlarged turbinates with an appropriate outcome. Bleeding and crusting are postoperative complications for Coblation. Thermographic measurements and histological analyses were used to elucidate the causes.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. In a porcine turbinate model, double-needle electrodes of different lengths were tested using a 4MHz radiofrequency current with either automatic energy limitation or a predetermined energy amount of 200 J. Coblation, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, was carried out with a Reflex Ultra 45 wand. The generated temperature was measured with thermo-probes at the tip of the electrodes. The mucosa was subsequently investigated histologically.

RESULTS. Without preoperative saline injection, all procedures generate temperatures < 100° C. After saline injection, excessive temperatures are reached by Coblation after the release of plasma in a closed system. The follow-up is a severe deterioration of the microscopic structures of the mucosa. The low-temperature advantages of Coblation are only effective if the mandatory saline solution rinses the surface. The Radiofrequency applications deliver more predictable results.

CONCLUSION. For the treatment of the functional enlargement of the turbinates, Radiofrequency current with proofed settings should be chosen.

Open access

Victoria Ancuța Rus, Florina Ruța, Maria Sălcudean, Monica Tarcea, Costela Șerban, Călin Avram, Iustinian Simion and Theodora Benedek

Abstract

Background: Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, weight control, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol limitation, plays an important role in treating high blood pressure and cardiovascular and chronic diseases.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate adherence to the DASH diet in relation to the occurrence of high blood pressure and chronic disease risk factors, in a group of people from Tîrgu Mureș.

Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire applied to a group of 2,010 people aged 15–92 years from Tîrgu Mureș.

Results: Individuals over the age of 45 had higher DASH scores (Q4, Q5) compared to subjects younger than 40 years (Q1 and Q2, p <0.001). An important percentage (19.3%) of subjects who preferred a meat-based diet (Q3) had significantly larger abdominal circumference (mean 92.2 ± 0.91 cm, p <0.001). An association between pure alcohol intake (mean 5.6 ± 0.43 g) and an unhealthy diet (Q1) was observed, compared to the average 1.7 ± 19 g of alcohol consumed by subjects with a healthy diet (Q5), alcohol consumption decreasing with an increasing DASH score (p <0.001).

Conclusion: This study shows that individuals diagnosed with at least one cardiovascular risk factor had a higher adherence to the DASH diet than individuals with no cardiovascular risk factors, most likely due to the fact that diagnosed individuals had changed their eating behavior and lifestyle from the time of diagnosis, with a positive impact on treatment outcomes and quality of life.