Leptospirosis is a spirochaetal zoonosis, with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild (febrile illness) to fulminant forms (systemic disease with jaundice and kidney failure – Weil's disease).
We present the case of a 62 year old patient, with no personal pathological incidents, brought to the emergency room for fever, chills, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, for 14 days, with jaundice, shortness of breath, and confusion for 72 hours. Clinical examination revealed fever, confusion, jaundice, tachypnoea, tachycardia, irregular heart rhythm, hypotension, anuria, hepatomegaly, no clinical signs of liver cirrhosis or flapping tremor. Laboratory tests revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilia, hepatic cytolysis, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, while the imagistic investigations were normal. Serological tests were performed for viral, drug induced hepatitis, autoimmune diseases, other infectious diseases (Elisa and ultramicroscopic agglutination tests were positive for leptospirosis). Later, the patient's condition worsened, resulting in intubation and mechanical ventilation, persistence of febrile syndrome and jaundice, bilateral lower limb petechiae with hepatic encephalopathy. Broad spectrum antibiotics (Ceftriaxone and Penicillin G), dialysis, hydroelectrolytic rebalancing, Dopamine support, antiarrhythmic drugs were administered, and the hepatic encephalopathy was also treated. The outcome was favourable (extubation, resolution of febrile syndrome, inflammation, jaundice and hepatic encephalopathy).
This case is an example of atypical, monophasic leptospirosis which is common in Weil's disease (the most severe form of leptospirosis), with onset as a febrile illness leading to multiple system organ failure.