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Open access

D. Maženský and S. Flešárová

Abstract

The aim of this research was to describe the level of origin of the branches originating from the ventral surface of the abdominal aorta in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of the celiac, cranial mesenteric and caudal mesenteric arteries in both species. In the rabbit, the celiac artery originated in the majority of cases at the cranial end of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the middle part of the vertebral body of the same vertebra. The cranial mesenteric artery in the rabbit originated predominantly at the level of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. In the rabbit, the caudal mesenteric artery originated mainly at the level of the sixth lumbar vertebra and in the hare, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. We concluded that there were higher variabilities of the origins of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta in domesticated rabbit in comparison with the European hare.

Open access

Z. Sihelská, E. Čonková, P. Váczi, M. Harčárová and E. Böhmová

Abstract

The Malassezia genus is represented by several lipophilic yeasts, normally present on the skin of many warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Malassezia yeasts in dogs with skin lesions (dermatitis, interdigital dermatitis and inflammation of anal sacs) and otitis externa. The presence of Malassezia spp. was investigated in a group of 300 dogs exhibiting clinical manifestations. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using phenotypic (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics) and genotypic methods (PCR, RFLP-AluI, BanI and MspA1I) which allowed their precise identification. Malassezia yeasts were isolated from 84 specimens obtained from 76 positive dogs. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species (79 isolates) in this study. M. furfur was identified in four dogs and M. nana in one dog. The prevalence of isolated Malassezia spp. was 25.3 % in dogs with skin lesions; from which 36.0 % were dogs suffering from otitis externa, 24.5 % from dogs having dermatitis, 16.4 % from dogs with interdigital dermatitis and 14.3 % from dogs having inflammation of the anal sacs. A higher prevalence of Malassezia spp. was observed in animals with pendulous ears in comparison with dogs having erect ears.

Open access

A. Lam and M. Halán

Abstract

The evaluation of uric acid concentrations in the blood of snakes is a crucial tool in the diagnosis of gout and renal disease; both prevalent diseases in captive reptiles. However, without an understanding of the physiological fluctuations in uric acid levels and the absence of distinction that makes pathological changes, biochemical parameters are devalued. This study focuses on investigating the relationship between feeding rate and plasma-uric acid concentrations of snakes. The aim of this investigation is to facilitate a better understanding of the feed-induced changes that occur, and to render the analysis of this biochemical parameter as a more potent diagnostic tool. A total of 10 snakes were used in the study and the basal concentration of uric acid was established prior to feeding via blood biochemical analysis. The snakes were then fed rats and successive postprandial blood samples were taken for the monitoring of uric acid levels. The results demonstrated that feeding led to substantial elevations in the uric acid values, whereby postprandial concentrations were significantly elevated for up to 5 days after feeding. The postprandial elevations in uric acid documented in these snakes were of similar levels reported in snakes afflicted with gout or renal disease. The results demonstrated the significant changes that occur to uric acid levels after feeding, and highlights the resemblance between postprandial increases in uric acid and concentrations reported in snakes suffering from renal disease or gout. To avoid a misdiagnosis and to distinguish transient postprandial hyperuricemia from pathological elevations, collecting sufficient anamnestic data on time since last feeding in performing repeated sampling after one week period of fasting is suggested.

Open access

H. McFall and Š. Vilček

Abstract

The objective of this study was to show if porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1) participates in the development of diarrhoea in piglets. The experiments were focused on comparing the occurrence of PKV-1 with the occurrence of rotavirus A (RVA) infection in suckling pigs on Slovak pig farms. A total of 91 rectal swabs of piglets (age < 28 days) were collected from 8 pig farms. RT-PCR was employed to detect PKV-1 through amplification of the 495 bp fragment of the 3D gene using primers KoVF/ KoVR, and RVA was detected through amplification of the 309 bp fragment of the VP6 gene using primers rot3 and rot5. As expected, the detection of RVA in diarrhoeic piglets was 56.8 % (P < 0.01), while only 14.8 % in healthy animals. These results confirm that RVA is one of the main causes of diarrhoea in young piglets. Comparatively, PKV-1 was detected in approximately equal numbers in the same group of both healthy and diarrhoeic pigs, with 74.1 % in healthy animals and 81.1 % in diarrhoeic animals, which was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The level of co-infection of both viruses was 11.1 % in healthy animals. A portion of 48.6 % (P < 0.01) of diarrhoeic animals were found with RVA and PKV-1 coinfections. The results of this study indicate that while RVA is an enteric virus, PKV-1 cannot confidently be confirmed as an enteric pathogen.

Open access

K. Goldírová, M. Fialkovičová, M. Benková, C. Tóthová and M. Harčárová

Abstract

Short-term intensive exercise may be associated with many short-lasting metabolic changes. These changes depend on the duration and intensity of the exercise. The aim of our study was to determine potential changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) and selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy German shepherd dogs before short duration high-intensity exercise and 6 hours after the exercise. During the study, the dogs were subjected to the following defensive training: detaining a figurant running away from a dog (2×) and detaining with a counterattack (2×). The running distance was 200 m at a mean speed of 28 km.h-1. The investigation of haematological parameters revealed a significant decrease in the mean values of platelet haematocrit (PCT) 6 hours after the training. Significant differences in the levels determined before and after exercise were observed also for phosphorus (P) and for iron (Fe). At the same time, we observed a significant increase in the mean calcium (Ca) level and a significant decrease in sodium (Na) and chlorides (Cl). The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) significantly increased after exercise. Concentrations of acute phase C-reactive proteins were increased 6 hours after exercise in comparison to those before exercise but the difference was insignificant. Although the concentration of CRP was increased insignificantly after the exercise, when interpreting concentrations of this nonspecific indicator of inflammation, one should keep in mind that intensive exercise may also affect its concentrations.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, D. Maženský and V. Danielisová

Abstract

It is well known that neuronal death, clinically manifested as paresis or plegia, is the end result of many pathological events affecting the central nervous system. However, several aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of tetra- or paraplegia caused by spinal cord traumatic or ischemic damage are only insufficiently understood and their histopathological manifestations remain poorly documented. That is why the authors decided to report on light-microscopic changes observed in 30 μm thick spinal cord sections cut from L3-S1 segments processed by the Nauta staining method in a group of 6 dogs with ischemic paraplegia induced by 30 min of a high thoracic aorta occlusion, and in a different group of 6 dogs with traumatic paraplegia induced by 5 min spinal cord compression with 200 g metallic rod. Both experimental groups (ischemic and compression) of spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprised the same number of mongrel dogs of both sexes, weighing 18-25 kg. In addition, each of the experimental groups had 3 normal dogs that served as controls. All experimental procedures were accomplished under general anaesthesia induced by pentobarbital and maintained by a mixture of halothane and oxygen. Following the 72 hour survival period, all 18 animals were euthanized by transcardial perfusion with 3,000 ml of saline and fixed by 3,000 ml of 10 % neutral formaldehyde during deep pentobarbital anaesthesia. The histopathological manifestation of neural tissue damage caused by ischemia or compression was similar. The light-microscopic images in both groups were characterised by argyrophilia and the swelling of grey matter neurons. However, in the dogs with traumatic SCIs, the changes only reached about 750 μm cranially and caudally from the necrotic epicentre. These findings indicated that the events taking part in secondary spinal cord injury mechanisms are similar in both, ischemic as well as in traumatic SCI.

Open access

A. Geromichalou and Z. Faixová

Abstract

Canine Ehrlichiosis is an important immunosuppressive tick borne disease in dogs. The geographical distribution and transmission is mostly related with Rhipicephalus sanguineus which acts as a vector. There is no predilection of age or sex; all breeds may be infected with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The primary targets are monocytic cells. Platelet disorders and serum protein alterations are the principal hematological and biochemical consequences of infections. Clinical signs are almost non-specific. A definitive diagnosis requires: visualization of morulae within monocytes on cytology, detection of serum antibodies with E. canis, the IFA test, or the PCR. The objective of this study was to present information about haematological and biochemical tests of E. canis infected dogs in Lesvos island in Greece, which is an endemic area.

Open access

K. Hlubeňová, D. Mudroňová, R. Nemcová, S. Gancarčíková, M. Maďar and Ľ. Sciranková

Abstract

Alginite is organic matter rich in humic substances and commonly found in nature, but despite that, the knowledge of its biological effects is limited. In our study we focused on monitoring the effects of alginite alone, as well as its effect as a carrier of probiotic lactobacilli on the cellular immune response in SPF mice after infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sixty six conventional SPF female mice of the Balb/c line were divided into 4 groups: 1. infection free negative control (NK) supplied neither alginite nor probiotic lactobacilli in the feed; 2. infection free alginite control (Alg) supplied feed with 10 % alginite; infected control supplied alginite in the feed but no lactobacilli; 3. infectious control (Alg + Sal) - animals infected with salmonella and supplied 10 % alginite in the feed but no lactobacilli;and 4. probiotic group (Lab + Alg + Sal) - animals infected with salmonella and administered 10 % alginite and Lactobacillus reuteri 2/6 in the feed. On day 21 of the experiments, the mice were bled and their mesenteric lymph nodes were taken after their death. The peripheral blood of the mice was analysed for the activity of phagocytes and the percentage of selected lymphocyte subpopulations was determined in the mesenteric lymph nodes and blood. The significantly highest phagocytic activity (FA) was noted in the infected group with alginite (Alg + Sal). The FA was significantly increased in groups Alg and Lab + Alg + Sal in comparison with the NK group. The highest engulfing ability of phagocytes (phagocytic index) was observed in the Lab + Alg + Sal group in comparison with other groups, but also in Alg group in comparison with NK. In the Lab + Alg + Sal group, we observed a significantly higher percentage of B-lymphocytes, CD4+CD8+ and natural killer T cells (NKT), but more significant impact on the numbers of subpopulations of lymphocytes was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, with the significantly highest proportions of CD4+CD8+lymphocytes and NK and NKT cells. Our results indicated immunomodulatory properties of alginite and L. reuteri 2/6 in salmonella infected mice, especially at the level of the innate immune system components. This activation of phagocytosis and NK cells can be used in the treatment of various infections.

Open access

P. Popelka, P. Jevinová, K. Šmejkal and P. Roba

Abstract

One of the traditional plants that have so many pharmacological effects is chilli fruit (Capsicum sp.) that belong to the family Solanaceae. Around the world, five varieties of Capsicum are known, i. e., C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. Chilli peppers are known for causing the sensation of heat or burning when consumed. The heat sensation is incited by the type and the amount of a group of capsaicinoids; the alkaloids found only in chilli pepper pods. A widely used heat measurement of chilli peppers is the SHU (Scoville Heating Unit). This measurement is the highest dilution of a chilli pepper extract at which heat can be detected by a taste panel. Nowadays, the Scoville organoleptic test has been largely replaced by chromatographic methods which are considered to be more reliable and accurate. The HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography) method was used for the determination of capsaicin content in various fresh and dried peppers from the genera C. chinense. Currently, based on the results of HPLC, the hottest pepper has been Bhut Jolokia, followed by Habanero Red Savina and Habanero Yellow etc. The content of capsaicin in dried chillies is 7-10 times higher compared to fresh ones.

Open access

A. B. Ayinmode, O. O. Obebe and C. O. Aiki-Raji

Abstract

Several seroprevalence studies have been conducted on the natural infections of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic chickens around the world but only a few have published data on turkeys. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of exposure of farmed Nigerian turkeys to T. gondii infection. Sera obtained from 320 turkeys reared intensively in 3 states of southwest Nigeria were screened for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test. Antibodies were detected in 4.1 % (13/320) of the turkeys with titres of 1 : 20 in 7 turkeys, 1 : 40 in 5 and 1 : 80 in 1, while none was seropositive at 1 : 160 or 1 : 320. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was comparable among turkeys regardless of their breed, age, location and management system (P > 0.05). None of the variables were significantly associated with T. gondii antibodies by multivariate logistic regression. This first report of T. gondii infections in Nigerian turkeys recommends that turkey meat and its products be adequately processed before consumption.