Industrial waste deposited in landfills poses a threat to the environment and can cause its deterioration. The physical and chemical processes that result in the formation of a number of harmful substances occur in the mass of stored waste. When released to the environment these compounds can be dangerous to all its elements, especially to groundwater. The monitoring of landfill impact plays an important role in assessing the state of the environment. It allows us to follow what changes take place in the waste bed itself, and in particular elements of the environment. On the basis of long-term monitoring studies (conducted in the years 1995-2016), the quality of groundwater around the industrial waste landfill in Zgierz was determined and its impact on the environment was characterized. The quality of conducted monitoring was assessed in relation to the current regulations. Analysis of the results of groundwater quality tests confirms that the industrial landfill in the operational phase due to a number of applied security measures has not contributed to the deterioration of groundwater quality. In the post-operational phase, groundwater contamination is observed, and consequently irreversible changes occur in the environment. The negative impact of the landfill can be due to the disruption of sealing layers and elution of pollutants from the waste by rainwater. The landfill site monitoring plays a key role in assessing causal relationships occurring between the state of the landfill and elements of the environment in its vicinity.
Wael S. El-Tohamy, Samar N. ABDEL-Baki, Nagwa E. Abdel-Aziz and Abdel-Aziz A. Khidr
The objective of this study is to reveal the spatial and temporal variations of surface water quality in this part of the River Nile with respect to heavy metals pioneerution. Seventeen parameters in total were monitored at seven sites on a monthly basis from October 2013 to September 2014. The dataset was treated using the tools of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Cluster analysis showed three different groups of similarity between the sampling sites reflecting the variability in physicochemical characteristics and pollution levels of the study area. Six PCs factors were identified as responsible for the data structure explaining 91 % of the total variance. These were eutrophication factor (23.2 %), physicochemical factor (20.6 %), nutrients (16.3 %) and three additional factors, affected by alkalinity and heavy metals, recorded variance less than 15 % each. Also, the heavy metals pollution index (HPI) revealed that most of the calculated values were below the critical index limit of 100. However, two higher values (124.89 and 133.11) were calculated at sites V and VI during summer due to the temperature and increased run-off in the river system.
This work refers to the modelling of heat transfer in horizontal ground heat exchangers. For different conditions of collecting heat from the ground and different boundary condition profiles of temperature in the ground were found, and temporal variations of heat flux transferred between the ground surface and its interior were determined. It was taken into account that this flux results from several different mechanisms of heat transfer: convective, radiative, and that connected with moisture evaporation. It was calculated that ground temperature at great depths is greater than the average annual ambient temperature.
Lech Wojciech Szajdak, Wioletta Gaca, Jürgen Augustin and Teresa Meysner
The Typic Hapludalfs soils under two old shelterbelts (200 years old) Robinia pseudacacia and Crataegus monogyna, multi species of trees (young shelterbelt - 20 years old) and neighbouring cultivated fields were investigated. The function of shelterbelts of different age and plant composition in agricultural landscape and estimation of biochemical and chemical soil conditions for the decrease of greenhouse gases release from soil to the atmosphere was the aim of the research. In soils under shelterbelts were estimated activities of several enzymes participating in the oxidation-reduction processes, ferric and ferrous ions and the evolutions of gases like N2, N2O, CO2, and CH4. The soils under old shelterbelts characterized higher peroxidase activity than in young shelterbelt and adjoining cultivated fields. However, no significant differences were observed for nitrate reductase activity between old and young shelterbelts. There were proved differences between emission of N2O in soils under shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields. Furthermore, it was observed significant effect of the young shelterbelt on the decrease of carbon dioxide release than in the adjoining cultivated field. The manipulation of the landscape through the introduction of shelterbelts of different age and the composition of plants leads to the modification of biogeochemical soil conditions for N2O and N2 formation and finally decrease of the greenhouse gases evolution from soils to the atmosphere. Thus the creation of new shelterbelts is favourable factor for agricultural landscape.
The aim of this study was to develop an effective thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp, in order to increase its bioconversion to biofuels and bio-products. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using: alkaline (3 % NaOH), oxidative (3 % H2O2 at pH 11.5) and glycerol-based methods (70-90 % of glycerol, 1-3 % NaOH), prior to enzymatic hydrolysis with Cellic® CTec2/Cellic® HTec2 (15 FPU∙g−1 glucan). Innovative pretreatment with glycerol fraction (80 % glycerol content, 2 % NaOH, 12.5 % biomass loading) showed to be superior over commonly used alkaline and oxidative methods with respect to by-products generation and sugar losses. Integrated process of ethanol production from enriched cellulose fraction (172 kg EtOH∙Mg−1 of dry hemp) and succinic production from xylose-rich residue after ethanol fermentation (59 kg∙Mg−1 of dry hemp) allowed to convert about 97 % of sugars released (glucose and xylose) during enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated biomass. The present study showed that it is possible to replace 50 % of the costly yeast extract, used during succinic fermentation as nitrogen source, by alternative nitrogen source (rapeseed cakes) without significant deterioration of succinic yield. Pretreatment liquor after lignin precipitation (52 kg∙Mg−1 of biomass treated) exhibited a high biodegradability (92 %) and allowed to produce 420 m3 CH4/Mg VS). Results obtained in this study clearly document the possibility of biofuels (bioethanol, biogas) and bio-chemicals production from industrial hemp, in a biorefinery approach.
Christian Canales, Johanna Eyzaguirre, Patricio Baeza, Paulina Aballay and Juan Ojeda
Experimental biodesulfurization (BDS) data for dibenzothiophene (DBT) (1.0-7.0 mM) with Rhodococcus rhodochorus immobilized by adsorption on silica, were adjusted with liquid-film kinetic model (Fisher coefficient, F = 592.74 and probability value p << 0.05 and r2 = 0.97). Simulations predict the presence of considerable amounts of DBT surrounding the particles, which would be available for the cells adsorbed on the surface of silica. The greatest percentage removal (50 %) was obtained for adsorbed cell system over the suspended bacterial cells (30 %), showing that sulfur substrates are more bioavailable when the bacterial cells are adsorbed on silica. The liquid-film modelling with diffusional effects provides proper theoretical basis to explain the BDS performance obtained using adsorbed cells.
The aim of the research was to assess the level of contamination with heavy metals (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) in two forest areas selected in different places in Poland: the first one in the Swietokrzyskie Province (forests of the Staporkow Forest Division) and the second one in the Opolskie Province (forests of the Kup Forest Division). The degree of contamination of these forest areas with analytes was found using edible large-fruited mushrooms naturally occurring there - the research was carried out using passive biomonitoring method. Heavy metals in mushrooms (separately in stems and hats) as well as in soil samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with excitation in flame (F-AAS). The obtained results were interpreted by assessing the degree of contamination of forest areas on the basis of concentrations of heavy metals in mushrooms. The obtained results indicate an increased accumulation of heavy metals in hats than in mushrooms stems. On the basis of the obtained data, significant contamination of forest areas with selected heavy metals was also found. This is confirmed by the possibility of using mushrooms as biomonitors in passive biomonitoring of forest areas, which are heavy metal accumulators. In the interpretation of the test results, the phytocumuling factor (PF) was also used. The degree of accumulation of heavy metals, from given forest areas - from soil to mushrooms - was assessed on the basis of determined PF coefficients. In addition, good bioavailability of the analysed analytes by mushrooms was found. Additionally, on the basis of the conducted studies, the possibility of mushroom consumption was assessed - they are not suitable for consumption due to the fact that the permissible concentration standards of heavy metals contained in mushrooms were exceeded.
Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk, Inga Zinicovscaia, Marina Frontasyeva, Aleksandra Milczarek, Sabrina Micheli, Mariia Vysochanska and Joanna Deckert
Iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) deficiency in human diets is a widespread problem observed in various regions of the world. Insufficient Fe uptake results in the development of iron dependent anaemia and depressed physical and intellectual performance. In turn Mg deficiency is associated with alterations in neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. An emerging alternative to traditional supplementation of these elements in the form of pills, liquids or effervescent tablets, is introduction of fortified food products. In present study we show that preincubation of soybean seeds in Fe and Mg solutions leads to elevated content of these elements in the seedlings. Importantly the pretreatment did not affect germination rate, seedlings growth or, with an exception of Fe supplementation at highest concentration, antioxidant capacity. The obtained results indicate that preincubation of seeds in Fe and Mg solutions may be a promising method of obtaining enriched soybean sprouts.
Inga Zinicovscaia, Mira Aničić Urošević, Konstantin Vergel, Ecaterina Vieru, Marina V. Frontasyeva, Igor Povar and Gheorghe Duca
For the first time active moss biomonitoring was used to assess trace element deposition in the capital of the Republic of Moldova, Chisinau. Moss Sphagnum girgensohnii samples were exposed in bags at three sites of Chisinau from October, 2016 to March, 2017. The content of 30 elements: Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Mo, Sr, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Cs, Hf, Th, Cu, Cd, Pb, and U in the exposed and unexposed mosses was determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. According to the relative accumulation factor, the most abundant elements in the samples were V, Cr, Fe, Ba, La, As, Sb, U, and Pb. Such elements as Cl, K, and Rb were depleted from the moss tissue during the time of exposure. Principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources. The obtained results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple and inexpensive technique to monitor major and trace element content in the air of urban area.
This article describes a method for producing polymeric membranes by adding carbon nanostructures in the form of graphene oxide (GO). The reference membrane (having typical composition) was formed via phase inversion, using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dissolved in dimethylacetamide (DMAC). The polymeric matrix was additionally enriched with a plasticizer, i.e. polyethylene glycol (PEG). Afterwards, graphene oxide ultrasonically dispersed in dimethylacetamide was added to basic matrix. The membranes were further compared with one another by measuring their contact angle and hydrodynamics. The results were compared with the literature reports. The transport properties of the membranes were assessed with experimental ultrafiltration equipment (KOCH Membrane System). Also, their permeate flux and mass transfer resistance were determined.