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Degradation of Synthetic Dyes by Laccases – A Mini-Review

Abstract

Laccases provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. These enzymes are able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic substrates without the presence of additional co-factors. Laccases have been confirmed for their potential of synthetic dye degradation from wastewater and degradation products of these enzymatic reactions become less toxic than selected dyes. This study discusses the potential of laccase enzymes as agents for laccase-catalyzed degradation in terms of biodegradation efficiency of synthetic dyes, specifically: azo dyes, triphenylmethane, indigo and anthraquinone dyes. Review also summarizes the laccase-catalyzed degradation mechanisms of the selected synthetic dyes, as well as the degradation products and the toxicity of the dyes and their degradation products.

Open access
Electrochemical Treatment of Water Contaminated with Methylorange

Abstract

This study examines electrochemical degradation of water artificially contaminated by azo dye Methyl Orange (MO). Degradation is based on chemical electro-oxidation of MO molecules. Graphite was used as an electrode material for electrochemical oxidation of MO. In this work, the different operative parameters (electric current, NaCl content) and their effect on effectiveness as well as the treatment time/duration of MO degradation were tested. The highest dye removal (91.0 %) was obtained during the electrolysis at current density 3.032 mA/cm2, electrolyte with the content of NaCl 4 g/dm3 (NaCl) and the treatment time 35 min.

Open access
HPLC Enantioseparation of Phenylcarbamic Acid Derivatives by Using Macrocyclic Chiral Stationary Phases

Abstract

The HPLC by using chiral stationary phases based on macrocyclic antibiotics, dimethylphenyl carbamate cyklofructan 7 and β-cyclodextrin in terms of polar-organic separation mode (mobile phase methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid/triethylamine) were used for enantioseparation of alkoxy derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid. The effect of the analyte structures on the efficiency of enantioseparation was investigated. The most suitable stationary phase was teicoplanin aglycone, where the separations of the enantiomers were obtained (the resolution value from 0.65 to 2.90, depending on the structure of the analyte). Significant effect on the resolution of the enantiomers has position of alkoxy substituent in the hydrophobic part of the molecule. The enantiorecognition was achieved for 3-alkoxysubstituted derivatives.

Open access
Improved Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Detection in Meat and Milk Matrices

Abstract

Staphylococcal food poisoning represents one of the most frequently occurring intoxications, caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE-s) and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like proteins (SEl-s). Therefore, there is a need for rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for this human pathogen and its toxin genes in food matrices. The present work is focused on Staphylococcus aureus detection by a nonaplex polymerase chain reaction, which targets the 23S rRNA gene for identification of S. aureus at the species level, genes for classical SE-s (SEA, SEC, SED), new SE-s (SEH, SEI), SEl-s (SEK, SEL) and tsst-1 gene (toxic shock syndrome toxin). Primers were properly designed to avoid undesirable interactions and to create a reliably identifiable profile of amplicons when visualized in agarose gel. According to obtained results, this approach is able to reach the detection sensitivity of 12 colony forming units from milk and meat matrices without prior culturing and DNA extraction.

Open access
In Vitro Investigation of D- and Lenantiomer Synergistic Efects of Some Amino Acids

Abstract

D-amino acids can arise from endogenous microbial flora, from ingestion with the diet or from spontaneous racemization of L-amino acids during ageing. In this work, the behavior of methionine, homocysteine and cysteine enantiomers was investigated in human serum in vitro during 0-72 h at incubation temperature 37°C. The separation of enantiomers was realized in two dimensional on-line system (the connection of an achiral column Purospher RP-18 endcapped and a chiral column Chirobiotic TAG). This system allowed simultaneous monitoring all tested amino acids and their enantiomers. The possible effect D-enantiomer on the behavior of its L-enantiomer (the synergistic effect) was evaluated during incubation time. The first results have showed that no synergistic effect of D-enantiomer on its Lisomer has been observed in our experimental conditions in vitro.

Open access
In Vitro Regeneration Potential of Seven Commercial Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max L.) for Use in Biotechnology

Abstract

This work is aimed to evaluate in vitro regeneration potential of seven commercial soybean varieties Bohemians, Cardiff, Gallec, Merlin, Moravians, Naya and Silensia (Glycine max L.) cultivated in Central Europe. Our results showed the half-seeds could be effectively used as an explant source for all tested cultivars. The regeneration was initiated on the media containing growth regulators 1.67 mg.l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg.l-1 GA3. Within the first five days culture, green chlorophyll-containing explants were observed with frequency from 18.3% to 55.9%. Two weeks later, the explants responded by production of calli with the efficiency up to 83.0%. First shoots appeared after 2–3 weeks of subculture on the media. The soybean regeneration showed to be genotype-dependent with variable efficiencies from 5.7% (cv. Naya) to 37.7% (cv. Gallec). The cultivars Cardiff, Merlin and Gallec appear to be the most promising candidates for further biotechnological use. Application of antioxidants such as L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate does not have effect on the explant regeneration for the first five days.

Open access
Metagenomic Analysis of Slovak Bryndza Cheese Using Next-Generation 16S rDNA Amplicon Sequencing

Abstract

Knowledge about diversity and taxonomic structure of the microbial population present in traditional fermented foods plays a key role in starter culture selection, safety improvement and quality enhancement of the end product. Aim of this study was to investigate microbial consortia composition in Slovak bryndza cheese. For this purpose, we used culture-independent approach based on 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing using next generation sequencing platform. Results obtained by the analysis of three commercial (produced on industrial scale in winter season) and one traditional (artisanal, most valued, produced in May) Slovak bryndza cheese sample were compared. A diverse prokaryotic microflora composed mostly of the genera Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus was identified. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris were the dominant taxons in all tested samples. Second most abundant species, detected in all bryndza cheeses, were Lactococcus fujiensis and Lactococcus taiwanensis, independently by two different approaches, using different reference 16S rRNA genes databases (Greengenes and NCBI respectively). They have been detected in bryndza cheese samples in substantial amount for the first time. The narrowest microbial diversity was observed in a sample made with a starter culture from pasteurised milk. Metagenomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes seems to be a powerful tool for studying the structure of the microbial population in cheeses.

Open access
Preliminary Results on Growing Second Generation Biofuel Crop Miscanthus X Giganteus at The Polluted Military Site in Ukraine

Abstract

The semi-field research on using second-generation biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus for restoration of former military site in Kamenetz-Podilsky, Ukraine was carried out during two vegetation seasons. Despite high metal pollution of soil, in particular, by Fe, Mn, Ti, and Zr, no growth inhibition was observed. The concentrations followed pattern soil > roots > stems > leaves. Accumulation of particular metals in roots was different: Fe, Mn and Ti were accumulated rather palpably after the first vegetation season and less tangible after the second one. Cu, Pb and Zn were less accumulative in both vegetation seasons, and for As and Pb the accumulative concentrations were very small. Accumulations in the aboveground parts of the plant in comparison to roots were significantly lower in case of Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr and even statistically comparable to zero in case of As, Pb and Zr. Calculated translocation ratio of metals in the plant’s parts preferably indicated lack of metals’ hyper accumulation. Generally, no correlations were observed between concentrations of metals in the soil and in the upper plant’s parts. The research confirmed the ability of Miscanthus x giganteus to grow on the military soils predominantly contaminated by metals.

Open access
Pyrolysis Products as Soil Fertilizers: Screening of Potentially Hazardous Aromatic Compounds

Abstract

This study investigated the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCM) produced from three waste materials during slow pyrolysis at 400 and 500°C. As feedstocks bone meal (BM), biogas slurry (BC) and chicken manure (CM) were used. As potentially problematic substances 1- and 2- methylnaphthalene were analysed as indicators for methylated hydrocarbons in pyrolysis products. The phytotoxic effect of soil amendments was evaluated by a standard cress germination test with Lepidium sativum L. The analysis showed higher concentrations of the sum of 16 US-EPA PAHs in samples produced at lower temperature and in samples produced from biogas slurry. Concentrations of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene showed similar trends with concentrations in a range of 35-205% of the sum of 16 PAHs. Germination tests showed inhibition effects of products from biogas slurry when applied in concentrations of ≥ 10 % to standard substrate. Apparently pyrolysis of biogas slurry requires special attention to avoid accumulation of PAHs and methylated naphthalenes.

Open access
Synthesis of 4-OXO-4H-Chromene Derivative with Fused Benzodiazepine Ring

Abstract

6-Acetylbenzo[b]chromeno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepin-13(6H)-one 6 was synthesized by reaction of 4- oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxaldehyde 1 with 1,2-diaminobenzene 2 followed by cyclisation of formed Schiff base 3 and spontaneous oxidation of dihydrodiazepine 4 by air oxygen. Finally, diazepine 5 was acetylated at N(6) by reaction with acetic anhydride.

Open access