Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece and its transportation system (development and operation) is hampered by the city’s geographical position and surrounding relief. Specifically, the city has been developed and expanded through the years along the coastline, the sea boundary on the southwest, and a second physical boundary, a forest, on the east side. The Thessaloniki Ring Road (divided in western and eastern part) was constructed in the early ‘90s, in order to relief the road network of the city centre from the transit traffic and confront the gradually increasing congestion. The absence of alternatives other than road transport and the increase of car ownership over the years led to an increase of motorized traffic. So even that this Ring Road had been designed to serve 30,000 vehicles daily it became to serve more than triple traffic just before the impacts of the economic crisis on transport and mobility have been made visible.
The Western Internal Ring Road of Thessaloniki (WIRRT) has length of 8.4km. It has three lanes per direction separated by a median and no emergency lanes. The traffic increase and moreover the existence of eight at grade intersections along the WIRRT degrade the provided level of service. For the elimination of these intersections an upgrade project is underway for implementation that includes the construction of five grade separated intersections and several interventions on the adjacent road network. This paper presents in brief the methodology and the results of the project’s Cost-Benefit Analysis, which assessed the expected socioeconomic benefits, emerging mainly from minimising the delays for users due to the elimination of the at grade signalised intersections.
The process of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation starts by collecting the data which will form the base for evaluation of pavement functional and structural condition. Collection of data can be performed by destructive and non-destructive testing. Usually preferred are the non-destructive methods, that do not damage the pavement, and the process of pavement evaluation is objective and repeatable. Non-destructive testing methods are becoming more and more popular, especially for assessing the structural condition of the pavement. Non-destructive testing by a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and the analysis of so collected data by the process of backcalculations is today the usual tool for assessing pavement bearing capacity. One of the basic input parameters for analysis of the data collected by FWD is pavement layers thickness.
The practice in Croatia is to determine pavement layers thickness by coring. This destructive method affects pavement integrity, so the number of such tests should be kept to the minimum. By coring the accurate thickness of all pavement layers is obtained on specific point locations. Thus, numerous deviations in layer thickness remain unnoticed, and in the end, use of such data for the process of backcalculations does not provide ac urate values of layer moduli. Coring can be replaced with non-destructive method of testing by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), which provides continuous information on thickness of all pavement layers.
The paper shows the method for assessing the bearing capacity of the pavement based on the data collected by FWD, GPR and coring. The calculation for layer moduli was performed by the ELMOD software, separately for the layers thickness data obtained by coring, and separately for the thickness obtained by GPR tests. Analysis and comparison of the results of calculated elasticity moduli obtained by using various methods for collecting layer thickness data were performed in the paper.
Aldo Giordano, Giorgio Pedrazzi and Giovanni Voiro
This paper describes the design and construction of a “balanced cantilever girder” bridge over the Danube-Black Sea channel, characterized by a central span of 155m with two symmetrical side spans of 77.5m. The total length of the bridge, including portions of the abutments support, is 312.0m.
The bridge main features, from calculation as well as construction points of view, are in particular the post-tensioning tendons, distributed both a top and bottom sides of the section along the bridge. The former ones play a key role in the construction phase, for the need of counterbalancing selfweight while subsequent segments are realized.
Tendons are symmetrical about midspan, with anchors positioned at the end of each segment.
Bridge deck is supported by two piers outfitted with friction pendulum seismic bearings, which develop friction both in static conditions to withstand static forces and small displacements, and in dynamic conditions, causing dissipation. Under severe earthquake load all structures (deck and piers) develop only elastic behavior.
This papers presents a detailed review of the design process as well as a time journey during construction
Goran Kos, Predrag Brlek, Kristijan Meic and Kresimir Vidovic
In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps) and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.
Ensuring sufficient visibility on planned roads by sight distance testing is an integral part of every project, but problems with visibility can emerge when noise barriers are erected on existing roads. Namely, in order to provide sufficient noise protection, high noise barriers are often placed at minimum distance from the carriageway edge, and additional visibility testing in most cases is not carried out.
Research described in this paper consists of stopping sight distance tests conducted by means of specialized road design software MX Road, and noise barrier optimization conducted by means of specialized noise prediction software LimA using static noise calculation method RLS 90. The aim of this research is to establish whether the required stopping sight distance on road sections where minimum design parameters are applied can be achieved if the noise barrier is placed at minimum distance from the carriageway edge, and to establish whether the optimized dimensions of planned noise protection barrier will change if the barrier is placed on larger distance from the noise source, which is, in this case, the existing road.
Lucrarea abordează comportarea unui model de solid-rigid cu anumite simetrii structurale. Aceste simetrii permit simplificarea calculelor (ecuaţii de mişcare) şi, deci, a modelelor matematice. Dacă solidul rigid este conectat la structură prin patru legături elastice, modelul rămâne încă simplu şi uşor de rezolvat, vibraţiile putând fi decuplate în patru subsisteme de mişcare.
În final, se prezintă un studiu de caz pentru analiza modală a unui viaduct, modelat precum un corp solid-rigid, rezemat elastic, de pe autostrada Transilvania (km 29+602.75 m).
Maja Ahac, Stjepan Lakušić, Saša Ahac and Vesna Dragčević
The paper describes the analysis of tram traffic noise situation in residential areas in the vicinity of Drzic Avenue, one of the major routes between the northern and southern part of the Croatian capital city Zagreb, and the effect of low barriers placed by the tracks on tram noise mitigation. In order to evaluate the effect of planned protection measure, noise models were produced and verified with short-term field measurements. Calculations were conducted by means of noise prediction software, using European interim noise prediction method and 3D model of analyzed area. Finally, the results of noise calculations for existing tram traffic situation and planned measure of protection are presented on noise maps.
Numerous studies at KIT prove that high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment is an efficient method for increasing the fatigue strength of welded steel structures. Within different research projects it was found that HFMI-methods can be used successfully for new and existing structures in order to extend the fatigue life. This paper gives an overview of the current status of existing steel bridges in Germany regarding aspects like bridge age distributions and traffic loads. Based on that overview welded joints susceptible to fatigue failure are identified. Using component-like small scale specimens, HFMI-methods were investigated within the objective of implementing an effective application for new and existing structures. Applying the fatigue test data observed, existing design proposals are evaluated and design recommendations for HFMI-treated joints are given. As a result of the research work, a transfer into practice has been realized and different applications are illustrated using the example of bridge constructions made of steel.
Prediction and optimization of in-service performance of road pavements during their live time is one of the main objectives of pavement research these days. For flexible pavements the key performance characteristics are fatigue and low-temperature, as well as permanent deformation behavior at elevated temperatures. The problem facing pavement designers is the need to fully characterize the complex thermo-rheological properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) over a wide temperature range on the one hand, while on the other also providing a realistic simulation of the traffic- and climate-induced stresses to which pavements are exposed over their design lives of 20 to 30 years. Where heavily trafficked roads are concerned, there is therefore an urgent need for more comprehensive test methods combined with better numerical forecast procedures to improve the economics and extend the service lives of flexible pavements under repair and maintenance programs.
This papers therefore focus on performance-based test methods on the basis of existing European standards that address effective mechanical characteristics of bituminous materials and which may be introduced into national requirements within the framework of European HMA specifications. These test methods comprise low temperature tests, i.e. the tensile stress restrained specimen test or the uniaxial tensile strength test, stiffness and fatigue tests, i.e. the four point bending beam test or the uniaxial tension compression test, as well as methods to determine permanent deformation behavior by means of dynamic triaxial tests.
These tests are used for the performance-based mix design and subsequently implemented in numerical pavement models for a reliable prediction of in-service performance, which, in combination with performance-based tests, enables a simulation of load-induced stresses and mechanogenic effects on the road structure and thus improved forecasts of the in-service performance of flexible pavements over their entire service lives.
Serghei Andrievschi, Valeriu Lungu, Ala Carcea and Alexandru Lozan
The process of division - combining of streams in mixers with bars and radial and longitudinal scrapers was studied. The number of unique streams that are formed after passing each row of longitudinal bars and the total amount of them were determined. This is demonstrated by migration of the particles along the mixer from left to right and vice versa, from the center of the drum towards the periphery and vice versa. In the process of mixing the particles in the center gain normal distribution and the ones on the side - sectioned normal distribution. The sum of normal distribution with the sectioned normal distribution leads to an equable distribution along the drum and transverse planes and to a homogeneous mixing of the components. The quality of mixing had been investigated and an optimal mixing regime for the mixer with radial and longitudinal bars and scrapers was proposed.